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Johann Friedrich Gmelin

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Nationality  German
Role  Botanist
Parents  Philipp Friedrich Gmelin

Known for  Textbooks
Education  University of Tubingen
Name  Johann Gmelin
Children  Leopold Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu
Born  8 August 1748 Tubingen, Holy Roman Empire (1748-08-08)
Institutions  University of Gottingen University of Tubingen
Doctoral advisor  Philipp Friedrich Gmelin Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger
Doctoral students  Georg Friedrich Hildebrandt Friedrich Stromeyer Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer Wilhelm August Lampadius
Died  November 1, 1804, Gottingen, Germany
Fields  Natural history, Botany, Entomology
Similar People  Leopold Gmelin, Friedrich Stromeyer, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, George II of Great Britain

Alma mater  University of Tubingen

Johann Friedrich Gmelin


Johann Friedrich Gmelin (8 August 1748 – 1 November 1804) was a German naturalist, botanist, entomologist, herpetologist and malacologist.

Contents

Education

Johann Friedrich Gmelin was born as the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gmelin in 1748 in Tübingen. He studied medicine under his father at University of Tübingen and graduated with an MD in 1768, with a thesis entitled: Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam., defended under the presidency of Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger, whom he thanks with the words Patrono et praeceptore in aeternum pie devenerando, pro summis in medicina obtinendis honoribus.

Career

In 1769, Gmelin became an adjunct professor of medicine at University of Tübingen. In 1773 he became professor of philosophy and adjunct professor of medicine at University of Göttingen. He was promoted to full professor of medicine and professor of chemistry, botany, and mineralogy in 1778. He died in 1804 in Göttingen.

Johann Friedrich Gmelin published several textbooks in the fields of chemistry, pharmaceutical science, mineralogy, and botany. He also published the 13th edition of Systema Naturae by Carl Linnaeus in 1788 and 1789. This contained descriptions and scientific names of many new species, including birds that had earlier been catalogued without a scientific name by John Latham in his A General Synopsis of Birds. Gmelin's publication is cited as the authority for over 290 bird species and also a number of butterfly species.

Legacy

Among his students were Georg Friedrich Hildebrandt, Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer, Friedrich Stromeyer and Wilhelm August Lampadius. He was the father of Leopold Gmelin.

He discovered the Redfin Pickerel in 1789.

In the scientific field of herpetology, he described many new species of amphibians and reptiles.

In the field of malacology, he described and named many species of gastropods.

The abbreviation "Gmel." is also found.

Publications

  • Gmelin, Johann Friedrich; Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger (1768). Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam. Thesis Tübingen. OCLC 10717434. 
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der Gifte, 2 Vol., 1776/77 Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der Pflanzengifte, 1777
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der mineralischen Gifte. Nürnberg : Raspe, 1777. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
  • Johann Friedrich Gmelins ... Einleitung in die Chemie zum Gebrauch auf Universitäten. Nürnberg: Raspe, 1780. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
  • Einleitung in die Pharmacie. Nürnberg: Raspe, 1781. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
  • Beyträge zur Geschichte des teutschen Bergbaus, 1783
  • Ueber die neuere Entdeckungen in der Lehre von der Luft, und deren Anwendung auf Arzneikunst, in Briefen an einen Arzt, von J. F. Gmelin., 1784
  • Grundsätze der technischen Chemie, 1786
  • Caroli a Linné, equitis aurati de stella polari, … Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. Lipsiae [Leipzig], Georg Emanuel Beer, 1789-1790
  • Grundriß der Pharmazie, 1792
  • Apparatus Medicaminum tam simplicium quam praeparatorum et compositorum in Praxeos Adiumentum consideratus, Ps. 2, T. 1 - Ps. 2, T. 2., 1795–1796. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
  • Geschichte der Chemie, 1799
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der thierischen und mineralischen Gifte, 1806
  • References

    Johann Friedrich Gmelin Wikipedia


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