Adrien attended Brookline High School in Brookline, Massachusetts. He rose to varsity level as sophomore on Brookline's state finalist team that year. As a senior, Adrien's team again reached the state championship. After his graduation (2004), Adrien attended Brewster Academy in Wolfeboro for a postgraduate year, playing in the Amateur Athletic Union, before entering the University of Connecticut on a full scholarship.
Adrien played power forward for the University of Connecticut Huskies. In the 2007-2008 NCAA season, Adrien was named to the 2008 First Team All-Big East Conference, leading the team in points (14.8 ppg) and rebounds (9.7 rpg). As team captain in the 2008-2009 NCAA men's basketball season, Adrien averaged 13.7 ppg, and 10 rebounds per game, constituting a rare double-double average. In 2009, The Huskies made it to the Final Four of the 2009 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, before losing to the Michigan State Spartans. Adrien finished his college career with over 1,600 points and 1,100 rebounds.
As for style of play, Adrien said in an interview that he feels the best attributes that he brings to the game are his "leadership, rebounding, toughness, and the ability to score over taller guys". Adrien indeed demonstrated potential as a rebounder over taller players in the NBA pre-draft measurements; despite measuring shorter than average for a power forward for the NBA draft at 6'6.5" with shoes on, Adrien's wingspan measures an outstanding 7'2" and he weighed in at a formidable 236 lbs.
Adrien was not selected in the 2009 NBA draft, but later signed with Spanish league's Leite Río Breogán in Lugo, Galicia.
In 2009, Adrien accepted an invite to play on a team in the Orlando Pro Summer League. The team was run jointly by both the New Jersey Nets and the Philadelphia 76ers. He also played for the Memphis Grizzlies in the Vegas Summer League. On the Grizzlies team, playing alongside fellow Connecticut alumni Marcus Williams, Rudy Gay and Hasheem Thabeet, he led the team in rebounding.
Adrien played for the Orlando Magic in the Orlando Pro Summer League in 2010.
On August 24, 2010, Adrien was invited to the Golden State Warriors training camp. On October 10, 2010, Adrien scored 11 points and grabbed 15 rebounds in 22 minutes in a preseason game against the Sacramento Kings He made the Warriors' final roster, but was waived in December 2010 to make room for Acie Law.
On December 17, 2010, Adrien signed with the Erie BayHawks. He was traded to the Rio Grande Valley Vipers two weeks later for Garrett Temple.
On February 24, 2011, Adrien re-signed with the Golden State Warriors following a trade that allowed roster space for him.
On June 30, 2011, Adrien was waived by the Golden State Warriors.
In July 2011 he signed a one-year contract with Benetton Treviso in Italy with an out clause to return to the NBA when the 2011 NBA lockout ended.
On December 21, 2011, Adrien signed with the Houston Rockets, where he was reunited with his former University of Connecticut teammate Hasheem Thabeet. He was waived on February 8, 2012. In October 2012, Adrien was acquired by the Rio Grande Valley Vipers.
On December 9, 2012, he was called up to play with the Charlotte Bobcats, where he was again reunited with a former University of Connecticut teammate in Kemba Walker. On January 8, 2013 the Bobcats guaranteed Adrien's contract for the remainder of the season.
On February 20, 2014, Adrien was traded to the Milwaukee Bucks along with Ramon Sessions in exchange for Gary Neal and Luke Ridnour.
On July 19, 2014, Adrien signed with the Houston Rockets, returning for a second stint. However, he was later waived by the Rockets on October 27, 2014.
On November 29, 2014, Adrien signed with the Minnesota Timberwolves to help the team deal with numerous injuries. Minnesota had to use an NBA hardship exemption in order to sign him as he made their roster stand at 16, one over the allowed limited of 15. On January 7, 2015, he was waived by the Timberwolves after appearing in 16 games.
On January 19, 2015, Adrien signed with the Guangdong Southern Tigers of the Chinese Basketball Association. Prior to Game 3 of Guangdong's semi-final match-up against the Beijing Ducks, Adrien was deactivated in order to open up a roster spot for Emmanuel Mudiay who returned from injury.
On September 23, 2015, Adrien signed with the New Orleans Pelicans. However, he was later waived by the Pelicans on October 24 after appearing in three preseason games.
On August 22, 2016, Adrien signed with Bnei Herzliya of the Israeli Premier League. During his season with the club, he was selected to the Israeli League All-Star game.
On August 24, 2017, Adrien signed a two-year contract extension with Bnei Herzliya.
Adrien is of Haitian descent.