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James Joseph Sylvester

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Nationality  United Kingdom
Fields  Mathematics

Name  James Sylvester
Role  Mathematician
James Joseph Sylvester imagejpg
Born  3 September 1814 London, England (1814-09-03)
Institutions  Johns Hopkins University University College London University of Virginia Royal Military Academy, Woolwich
Alma mater  St. John's College, Cambridge
Academic advisors  John Hymers Augustus De Morgan
Doctoral students  William Durfee George B. Halsted Washington Irving Stringham
Died  March 15, 1897, London, United Kingdom
Books  The collected mathematical papers of James Joseph Sylvester
Education  St John's College, Cambridge, University of Cambridge, University of London
Awards  Copley Medal, Royal Medal, De Morgan Medal
Influenced  Morgan Crofton, Christine Ladd-Franklin, George Salmon
Similar People  Augustus De Morgan, Isaac Todhunter, John Hymers, Christine Ladd‑Franklin, Charles Sanders Peirce

Dr padraig o cathain on james joseph sylvester

James Joseph Sylvester FRS (3 September 1814 – 15 March 1897) was an English mathematician. He made fundamental contributions to matrix theory, invariant theory, number theory, partition theory, and combinatorics. He played a leadership role in American mathematics in the later half of the 19th century as a professor at the Johns Hopkins University and as founder of the American Journal of Mathematics. At his death, he was professor at Oxford.


James Joseph Sylvester RPO Selected Poetry of James Joseph Sylvester 18141897

James joseph sylvester by aidan byrne


James Joseph Sylvester James Joseph Sylvester Quotes QuotesGram

Sylvester was born James Joseph in London, England. His father, Abraham Joseph, was a merchant. James adopted the surname Sylvester when his older brother did so upon emigration to the United States—a country which at that time required all immigrants to have a given name, a middle name, and a surname. At the age of 14, Sylvester was a student of Augustus De Morgan at the University of London. His family withdrew him from the University after he was accused of stabbing a fellow student with a knife. Subsequently, he attended the Liverpool Royal Institution.

James Joseph Sylvester James Joseph Sylvester The Sheridan Libraries Blog

Sylvester began his study of mathematics at St John's College, Cambridge in 1831, where his tutor was John Hymers. Although his studies were interrupted for almost two years due to a prolonged illness, he nevertheless ranked second in Cambridge's famous mathematical examination, the tripos, for which he sat in 1837. However, Sylvester was not issued a degree, because graduates at that time were required to state their acceptance of the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England, and Sylvester could not do so because he was Jewish, the same reason given in 1843 for his being denied appointment as Professor of Mathematics at Columbia College (now University) in New York City . For the same reason, he was unable to compete for a Fellowship or obtain a Smith's prize. In 1838 Sylvester became professor of natural philosophy at University College London and in 1839 a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 1841, he was awarded a BA and an MA by Trinity College, Dublin. In the same year he moved to the United States to become a professor of mathematics at the University of Virginia, but left after less than four months following a violent encounter with two students he had disciplined. He moved to New York City and began friendships with the Harvard mathematician Benjamin Peirce (father of Charles Sanders Peirce) and the Princeton physicist Joseph Henry, but in November 1843, after his rejection by Columbia, he returned to England.

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On his return to England, he was hired in 1844 by the Equity and Law Life Assurance Society for which he developed successful actuarial models and served as de facto CEO, a position that required a law degree. As a result, he studied for the Bar, meeting a fellow British mathematician studying law, Arthur Cayley, with whom he made significant contributions to invariant theory and also matrix theory during a long collaboration [Parshall]. He did not obtain a position teaching university mathematics until 1855, when he was appointed professor of mathematics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, from which he retired in 1869, because the compulsory retirement age was 55. The Woolwich academy initially refused to pay Sylvester his full pension, and only relented after a prolonged public controversy, during which Sylvester took his case to the letters page of The Times.

James Joseph Sylvester James Joseph Sylvester Wikipedia

One of Sylvester's lifelong passions was for poetry; he read and translated works from the original French, German, Italian, Latin and Greek, and many of his mathematical papers contain illustrative quotes from classical poetry. Following his early retirement, Sylvester (1870) published a book entitled The Laws of Verse in which he attempted to codify a set of laws for prosody in poetry.

James Joseph Sylvester Portrait of Professor James Joseph Sylvester 18141897

In 1872, he finally received his B.A. and M.A. from Cambridge, having been denied the degrees due to his being a Jew.

In 1876 Sylvester again crossed the Atlantic Ocean to become the inaugural professor of mathematics at the new Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. His salary was $5,000 (quite generous for the time), which he demanded be paid in gold. After negotiation, agreement was reached on a salary that was not paid in gold. In 1878 he founded the American Journal of Mathematics. The only other mathematical journal in the US at that time was the Analyst, which eventually became the Annals of Mathematics.

In 1883, he returned to England to take up the Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford University. He held this chair until his death, although in 1892 the University appointed a deputy professor to the same chair.

Sylvester invented a great number of mathematical terms such as "matrix" (in 1850), "graph" (combinatorics) and "discriminant". He coined the term "totient" for Euler's totient function φ(n). His collected scientific work fills four volumes. In 1880, the Royal Society of London awarded Sylvester the Copley Medal, its highest award for scientific achievement; in 1901, it instituted the Sylvester Medal in his memory, to encourage mathematical research after his death in Oxford. In Discrete geometry he is remembered for Sylvester's Problem and a result on the orchard problem.

Sylvester House, a portion of an undergraduate dormitory at Johns Hopkins University, is named in his honor. Several professorships there are named in his honor also.


  • Sylvester, James Joseph (1870), The Laws of Verse Or Principles of Versification Exemplified in Metrical Translations: together with an annotated reprint of the inaugural presidential address to the mathematical and physical section of the British Association at Exeter, London: Longmans, Green and Co, ISBN 978-1-177-91141-2 
  • Sylvester, James Joseph (1973) [1904], Baker, Henry Frederick, ed., The collected mathematical papers of James Joseph Sylvester, I, New York: AMS Chelsea Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8218-3654-5 
  • Sylvester, James Joseph (1973) [1908], Baker, Henry Frederick, ed., The collected mathematical papers of James Joseph Sylvester, II, New York: AMS Chelsea Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8218-4719-0 
  • Sylvester, James Joseph (1973) [1904], Baker, Henry Frederick, ed., The collected mathematical papers of James Joseph Sylvester, III, New York: AMS Chelsea Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8218-4720-6 
  • Sylvester, James Joseph (1973) [1904], Baker, Henry Frederick, ed., The collected mathematical papers of James Joseph Sylvester, IV, New York: AMS Chelsea Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8218-4238-6 
  • References

    James Joseph Sylvester Wikipedia

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