James Ellsworth Noland (April 22, 1920 – August 12, 1992) was a U.S. Representative from Indiana and a United States federal judge.
Born in La Grange, Missouri, Noland received an A.B. from Indiana University in 1942 and an M.B.A. from Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration in 1943. He was in the United States Army during World War II, from 1943 to 1946. He received a J.D. from Indiana University School of Law in 1948.
He was an unsuccessful Democratic candidate for election to the Eightieth Congress from Indiana in 1946. He was in private practice in Bloomington, Indiana from 1948 to 1949. He was a U.S. Representative from Indiana from 1949 to 1951. He ran unsuccessfully for reelection in 1950. He was in private practice in Indianapolis, Indiana from 1951 to 1966. During that time, he also served as an assistant state attorney general of Indiana in 1952, and as an Indiana state election commissioner in 1954. He was an assistant city attorney of Indianapolis in 1956, and a first assistant city attorney of Indianapolis from 1956 to 1957. He was a member of the Indiana State Election Board from 1958 to 1966.
On October 6, 1966, Noland was nominated by President Lyndon B. Johnson to a new seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana created by 80 Stat. 75. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on October 20, 1966, and received his commission on November 3, 1966. He served as chief judge from 1984 to 1986, assuming senior status on December 31, 1986. Noland served in that capacity until his death, in 1992, in Indianapolis. He was interred in that city's Crown Hill Cemetery.