| Jaime Balmes|
| July 9, 1848, Vic, Spain|
| Letters to a Sceptic on Religious, Protestantism and Catholicit, European Civilization Protestan, Fundamental Philosophy By James, Filosofia Fundamental ‑ The Orig|Jaime Balmes Wikipedia
Father Jaime Luciano Balmes y Urpiá (Catalan: Jaume Llucià Antoni Balmes i Urpià; 28 August 1810 – 9 July 1848) was a Spanish Catholic priest known for his political and philosophical writing.
Balmes was born at Vic, in the region of Catalonia in Spain and baptized the same day in the cathedral of that city with the name of Jaime Luciano Antonio. He died in the same city.
In 1817, Balmes began his studies at the seminary in Vic: three years of Latin grammar, three of Rhetoric and, from 1822, three of Philosophy. In 1825, in Solsona, he received the tonsure from the Bishop of this city, Manuel Benito Tabernero.
From 1825 to 1826, Balmes studied courses of Theology, also in Vic Seminary. He studied four courses of Theology, thanks to a scholarship, in the College of San Carlos at the University of Cervera.
For two years in 1830, because of the closure of the University of Cervera, Balmes continued studying in Vic, on his own. On 8 June 1833 he received his degree in theology.
On 20 September 1834, in the chapel of the episcopal palace of Vic, Balmes was ordained a priest by bishop don Pablo de Jesús Corcuera. He continued his studies in theology and of Canons, again at the University of Cervera. Finally, in 1835, he received the title of Doctor of Theology and Bachelor of Canons.
Balmes then made several attempts to teach in an official way at the University of Barcelona and not get engaged for some time in Vic tutoring. Finally, the City Council appoints him, in 1837, Professor of Mathematics, a position that he held for four years. In 1839, his mother Teresa Urpiá, died. In 1841, he moved to Barcelona.
Then, Balmes began his creative activity and contributed to various newspapers and magazines: Peace, Catholic Madrid, Civilization; and several pamphlets that attract readers attention.
From 1841, his creative genius "exploded" and he developed in a few highly active months his writings and his personality, that would be admired throughout Europe.
On 7 September 1844, he wrote and published "The true idea of value, or thoughts on the origin, the nature and variations of the prices" in which he solved the calue paradox, clearly introducing the notion of marginal use, Balmes asked himself, "Why a precious stone has a higher value than a piece of bread?"
Having attacked the regent Espartero, he was exiled. On his return, he founded and edited El Pensamiento de la Nación, a Catholic and conservative weekly; however, his fame rests principally on El Protestantismo comparado con el Catolicismo en sus relaciones con la Civilización Europea (Protestantism and Catholicity compared in their Effects on the Civilization of Europe), an able defence of Catholicism on the ground that it represents the spirit of obedience or order, as opposed to Protestantism, the spirit of revolt or anarchy. The book is often cited as a counter argument to historical accounts that focus on the reputed central role of the Protestant thought to the development of modern society.
According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition:
The best of his philosophical works, which are clear expositions of the scholastic system of thought, are the Filosofia Fundamental
(Basic Philosophy), and the Curso de Filosofia Elemental
(A Course of Elementary Philosophy), which he translated into Latin for use in seminaries.
La Religión Demostrada al Alcance de los Niños, La Sociedad de Operarios, 1847.
Consideraciones Políticas sobre la Situación de España, Imprensa de José Tauló, 1840.
Observaciones Sociales, Políticas y Económicas sobre los Bienes del Clero, Reimpreso en la Oficina de M. Brambila, 1842.
La Civilización, Tom. II, Tom. III, Brusi, 1841-1842.
El Protestantismo Comparado con el Catolicismo en sus Relaciones con la Civilización Europea, Tom. II, Tom. III, Tom. IV, José Tauló, 1842-1845.
El Criterio, A. Brusi, 1845.
El Pensamiento de la Nación; Periódico Religioso, Político y Literario, Tom. II, Tom. III, Imprensa de E. Aguado, 1844-46.
Cartas a un Escéptico en Materia de Religión, Impr. de A. Brusi, 1846.
Pio IX, Impr. y fundicion de D. E. Aguado, 1847.
Escritos Politicos, Sociedad de Operarios del Mismo Arte, 1847.
Curso de Filosofía Elemental, Tom. II, Impr. y Fund. de E. Aguado, 1847.
Escritos Póstumos del Dr. D. Jaime Balmes, Imp. de A. Brusi, 1850.
Filosofía Fundamental, Tom. II, Garnier, 1852.
Poesías Póstumas, Imprensa del Diario de Barcelona, 1870.
Obras Completas del Dr. D. Jaime Balmes, Pbro. Primera Edición Crítica Ordenada y Anotada por el P. Ignacio Casanovas, S.J. Biblioteca Balmes, 33 Vol., 1925.
"Verdadera idea del valor, o reflexiones sobre el origen, naturaleza y variedades de los precios", in Obra Completas, vol. 5, Madrid, BAC, 1949
European Civilization: Protestantism and Catholicity Compared in their Effects on the Civilization of Europe, Murphy & Co., 1850.
Protestantism and Catholicity Compared in their Effects on the Civilization of Europe,'' J. Murphy, G. Quigley, 1851.
Fundamental Philosophy, Vol. II, D. & J. Sadlier & Co., 1858.
Fundamental Philosophy, Vol. II, D. & J. Sadlier & Co., 1871-1880.
Letters to a Sceptic on Religious Matters, William B. Kelly, 1875.
Elements of Logic, P. O'Shea, 1876.
In Menczer, Béla, 1962. Catholic Political Thought, 1789-1848, University of Notre Dame Press.
"Faith and Liberty," pp. 185–191.