Rahul Sharma (Editor)

JEL classification codes

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JEL classification codes

Articles in economics journals are usually classified according to the JEL classification codes, a system originated by the Journal of Economic Literature. The JEL is published quarterly by the American Economic Association (AEA) and contains survey articles and information on recently published books and dissertations. The AEA maintains EconLit, a searchable data base of citations for articles, books, reviews, dissertations, and working papers classified by JEL codes for the years from 1969. A recent addition to EconLit is indexing of economics-journal articles from 1886 to 1968 parallel to the print series Index of Economic Articles.


There are 20 primary JEL categories:

  • JEL: A – General Economics, Handbooks and Teaching
  • JEL: B – History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches
  • JEL: C – Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
  • JEL: D – Microeconomics
  • JEL: E – Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics
  • JEL: F – International Economics
  • JEL: G – Financial Economics
  • JEL: H – Public Economics
  • JEL: I – Health, Education, and Welfare
  • JEL: J – Labor and Demographic Economics
  • JEL: K – Law and Economics
  • JEL: L – Industrial Organization
  • JEL: M – Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting
  • JEL: N – Economic History
  • JEL: O – Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth
  • JEL: P – Economic Systems
  • JEL: Q – Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
  • JEL: R – Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
  • JEL: Y – Miscellaneous Categories
  • JEL: Z – Other Special Topics.
  • Each JEL primary category has secondary and tertiary subcategories, for example, under JEL: D – Microeconomics:

    JEL: D1 – Household Behavior and Family Economics

    JEL code (sub)categories, including periodic updates, are referenced at Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) Classification System. Links to definitions of (sub)categories are at JEL Classification Codes Guide with corresponding examples of article titles linked to publication information, such as abstracts.

    Articles in economics journals also list JEL codes (for example JEL: B12), facilitating their use across search engines. Comprehensive uses of JEL (sub)classifications include:

    The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2008, v. 8, Appendix IV, pp. 854–69, and for the online version by drilling to the primary, secondary, or tertiary JEL code of interest here and pressing the Search button below it for article-preview links . • National Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers abstracts by year via links • Research Papers in Economics via links.

    General economics and teaching JEL: A Subcategories


    JEL: A1 – General Economics

    JEL: A2 – Economic Education and Teaching of Economics

    JEL: A3 – Collective Works

    History of economic thought, methodology, and heterodox approaches JEL: B Subcategories

    JEL: B0 – General

    JEL: B1 – History of Economic Thought through 1925

    JEL: B2 – History of Economic Thought since 1925

    JEL: B3 – History of Thought: Individuals

    JEL: B4 – Economic methodology

    JEL: B5 – Current Heterodox Approaches

    Mathematical and quantitative methods JEL: C Subcategories

    Category:Mathematical and quantitative methods (economics)

    JEL: C0 – General

    JEL: C1 – Econometric and Statistical Methods: General

    JEL: C2 – Econometric methods: Single equation models;Single variables

    JEL: C3 – Econometric Methods: Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models

    JEL: C4 – Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics

    JEL: C5 – Econometric Modeling

    JEL: C6 – Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling

    JEL: C7 – Game theory and Bargaining theory

    JEL: C8 – Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs

    JEL: C9 – Design of experiments

    Microeconomics JEL: D Subcategories


    JEL: D0 – General

    JEL: D1 – Household Behavior and Family Economics

    JEL: D2 – Production and Organizations

    JEL: D3 – Distribution

    JEL: D4 – Market structure and pricing

    JEL: D5 – General equilibrium and Disequilibrium

    JEL: D6 – Welfare economics

    JEL: D7 – Analysis of Collective Decision-Making

    JEL: D8 – Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty

    JEL: D9 – Intertemporal choice and Growth

    Macroeconomics and monetary economics JEL: E Subcategories

    JEL: E – Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics

    JEL: E0 – General

    JEL: E1 – General Aggregative Models

    JEL: E2 – Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment

    JEL: E3 – Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles

    JEL: E4 – Money and Interest Rates

    JEL: E5 – Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

    JEL: E6 – Macroeconomic Policy Formation, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy, and General Outlook

    International economics JEL: F Subcategories

    Category:International economics

    JEL: F – International Economics

    JEL: F0 – General

    JEL: F1 – Trade

    JEL: F2 – International Factor Movements and International Business

    JEL: F3 – International Finance

    JEL: F4 – Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

    JEL: F5 – International Relations and International Political Economy

    Financial economics JEL: G Subcategories

    Category:Financial economics

    JEL: G – Financial Economics

    JEL: G0 – General

    JEL: G1 – General Financial Markets

    JEL: G2 – Financial institutions and Services

    JEL: G3 – Corporate finance and Governance

    Public economics JEL: H Subcategories

    Category:Public economics

    JEL: H – Public Economics

    JEL: H0 – General

    JEL: H1 – Structure and Scope of Government

    JEL: H2 – Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

    JEL: H3 – Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

    JEL: H4 – Publicly provided goods

    JEL: H5 – National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

    JEL: H6 – National Budget, Deficit, and Debt

    JEL: H7 – State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations

    JEL: H8 – Miscellaneous Issues

    Health, education, and welfare JEL: I Subcategories

    JEL: I – Health, Education, and Welfare

    JEL: I0 – General

    JEL: I1 – Health

    JEL: I2 – Education

    JEL: I3 – Welfare and Poverty

    Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories

    Category:Labor and demographic economics

    JEL: J – Labor and Demographic Economics


    Category:Demographic economics

    JEL: J0 – General

    JEL: J1 – Demographic Economics

    JEL: J2 – Time Allocation, Work Behavior, and Employment Determination and Creation; Human capital

    JEL: J3 – Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs

    JEL: J4 – Particular Labor Markets

    JEL: J5 – Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining

    JEL: J6 – Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies

    JEL: J7 – Labor Discrimination

    JEL: J8 – Labor Standards: National and International

    Law and economics JEL: K Subcategories

    Category:Law and economics

    JEL: K – Law and Economics

    JEL: K0 – General

    JEL: K1 – Basic Areas of Law

    JEL: K2 – Regulation and Business Law

    Intermediate edit, cont.:

    JEL: K3 – Other Substantive Areas of Law

    JEL: K4 – Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior

    Industrial organization JEL: L Subcategories

    Category:Industrial organization

    JEL: L – Industrial Organization

    JEL: L0 – General

    JEL: L1 – Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

    JEL: L2 – Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior

    JEL: L3 – Non-profit organizations and Public enterprise

    JEL: L4 – Antitrust Issues and Policies

    JEL: L5 – Regulation and Industrial policy

    JEL: L6 – Industry Studies: Manufacturing

    JEL: L7 – Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction

    JEL: L8 – Industry Studies: Services

    JEL: L9 – Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities

    Business administration and business economics; marketing; accounting JEL: M Subcategories


    JEL: M – Business administration and business economics; marketing; accounting

    JEL: M0 – General

    JEL: M1 – Business Administration

    JEL: M2 – Business Economics

    JEL: M3 – Marketing and Advertising

    JEL: M4 – Accounting and Auditing

    JEL: M5 – Personnel economics

    Economic history JEL: N Subcategories

    Category:Economic history

    JEL: N – Economic History

    JEL: N0 – General

    JEL: N1 – Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Growth and Fluctuations

    JEL: N2 – Financial Markets and Institutions

    JEL: N3 – Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Income, and Wealth

    JEL: N4 – Government, War, Law, and Regulation

    JEL: N5 – Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries

    JEL: N6 – Manufacturing and Construction

    JEL: N7 – Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services

    JEL: N8 – Micro-Business History

    JEL: N9 – Regional and Urban History

    Economic development, technological change, and growth JEL: O Subcategories

    Category:Economic development, technological change, and growth

    JEL: O – Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth

    JEL: O1 – Economic development

    JEL: O2 – Development Planning and Policy

    JEL: O3 – Technological Change; Research and Development

    JEL: O4 – Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

    JEL: O5 – Economywide Country Studies

    Economic systems JEL: P Subcategories

    Category:Economic systems

    JEL: P – Economic Systems

    JEL: P0 – General

    JEL: P1 – Capitalist Systems

    JEL: P2 – Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies

    JEL: P3 – Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions

    JEL: P4 – Other Economic Systems

    JEL: P5 – Comparative Economic Systems

    Agricultural and natural resource economics; environmental and ecological economics JEL: Q Subcategories

    Category:Resource economics

    JEL: Q – Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics

    JEL: Q0 – General

    JEL: Q1 – Agriculture

    JEL: Q2 – Renewable Resources and Conservation

    JEL: Q3 – Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation

    JEL: Q4 – Energy

    JEL: Q5 – Environmental economics

    Urban, rural, and regional economics JEL: R Subcategories

    Category:Urban, rural, and regional economics

    JEL: R – Urban, Rural, and Regional economics

    JEL: R0 – General

    JEL: R1 – General Regional economics

    JEL: R2 – Household Analysis

    JEL: R3 – Production Analysis and Firm Location

    JEL: R4 – Transportation Systems

    JEL: R5 – Regional Government Analysis

    Miscellaneous categories (economics) JEL: Y Subcategories

    JEL: Y1 – Data: Tables and Charts

    JEL: Y2 – Introductory Material

    JEL: Y3 – Book Reviews (unclassified)

    JEL: Y4 – Dissertations (unclassified)

    JEL: Y5 – Further Reading (unclassified)

    JEL: Y6 – Excerpts

    JEL: Y6 – No Author General Discussions

    JEL: Y8 – JEL: Related Disciplines

    JEL: Y9 – Other

    Other special topics (economics) JEL: Z Subcategories

    JEL: Z – Other special topics

    JEL: Z0 – General

    JEL: Z1 – Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology


    JEL classification codes Wikipedia