Samiksha Jaiswal (Editor)

In medias res

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A narrative work beginning in medias res ([ɪn mɛdiaːs reːs], lit. "into the middle things") opens in the midst of action (cf. ab ovo, ab initio). Often, exposition is bypassed and filled in gradually, either through dialogue, flashbacks or description of past events. For example, Hamlet begins after the death of Hamlet's father. Characters make reference to King Hamlet's death without the plot's first establishment of said fact. Since the play focuses on Hamlet and the revenge itself more so than the motivation, Shakespeare utilizes in medias res to bypass superfluous exposition.


Works that employ in medias res often, though not always, will subsequently use flashback and nonlinear narrative for exposition of earlier events in order to fill in the backstory. For example, in Homer's Odyssey, we first learn about Odysseus's journey when he is held captive on Calypso's island. We then find out, in Books IX through XII, that the greater part of Odysseus's journey precedes that moment in the narrative. On the other hand, Homer's Iliad has relatively few flashbacks, although it opens in the thick of the Trojan War.

First use of the phrase

The Roman lyric poet and satirist Horace (65–8 BC) first used the terms ab ōvō ("from the egg") and in mediās rēs ("into the middle of things") in his Ars poetica ("Poetic Arts", c. 13 BC), wherein lines 147–149 describe the ideal epic poet:

Nor does he begin the Trojan War from the egg,

but always he hurries to the action, and snatches the listener into the middle of things. . . .

The "egg" reference is to the mythological origin of the Trojan War in the birth of Helen and Clytemnestra from the double egg laid by Leda following her seduction by Zeus in the guise of a swan.

Literary history

Probably originated in oral tradition, the narrative technique of beginning a story in medias res is a stylistic convention of epic poetry, the exemplar in Western literature being the Iliad (7th century BC) and the Odyssey (7th century BC), by Homer. Likewise, the technique features in the Indian Mahābhārata (c. 8th century BC – c. 4th century AD); the Portuguese The Lusiads (1572); the Spanish Cantar de Mio Cid (c. 14th century); the German Nibelungenlied (12th century); and the stories "Sinbad the Sailor" and "The Three Apples" from the One Thousand and One Nights (c. 9th century).

The classical-era poet Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro, 70–19 BC) continued this literary narrative technique in the Aeneid, which is part of the Greek literary tradition of imitating Homer, in medias res narration further continued in early modern poetry with Jerusalem Delivered (1581), by Torquato Tasso, Paradise Lost (1667), by John Milton, and generally in Modernist literature.

Modern novelists known to extensively employ in medias res in conjunction with flashbacks include William Faulkner and Toni Morrison. Well-known films that employ it include Raging Bull and City of God.

Occasionally adaptations of source material may employ in medias res while the original version did not. For example, the film adaptation of the stage musical Camelot employed in medias res while the original Broadway version did not (although revivals of the musical have). Stanley Kubrick's 1962 film adaptation of Lolita begins in medias res although the novel does not. Herman Wouk's stage adaptation of his own novel The Caine Mutiny begins in medias res as it opens with the court-martial that occupies the final section of the novel, telling the earlier part of the story through flashbacks in court-room testimony.

A number of authors still use in medias res today in their stories. For example, novels in The Time Warp Trio series would usually have the first chapter begin with the main characters facing a precarious situation in a particular time period.

Cinematic history

It is typical for film noir to begin in medias res; for example, a private detective will enter the plot already in progress. Crossfire (1947) opens with the murder of Joseph Samuels. As the police investigate the crime, the story behind the murder is told via flashbacks. Dead Reckoning (1947) opens with Humphrey Bogart as Rip Murdock on the run and attempting to hide in a Catholic church. Inside, the backstory is told in flashback as Murdock explains his situation to a priest.

The technique continues to be used in modern crime thrillers such as Grievous Bodily Harm (1988), The Usual Suspects (1995), and Kill Bill Volume 2 (2004). and action thrillers such as Firestarter (1984), and many James Bond films.

Many war films, such as The Thin Red Line (1998), also begin in medias res, with the protagonists already actively in combat and no prior domestic scenes leading up to the film's events.

The technique is not limited these specific genres, and has been used in other types of films, including drama. It has also been used in such diverse films as Through a Glass Darkly (1961), (1963), and Dr. Strangelove (1964).

In television and movies, the technique of having a pre-credits sequence in which some of the story takes place prior to any credits is called a cold open. Many television shows in the 1960s had a pre-credits 'teaser' which hooked the audience to keep their attention. It is often accompanied by in medias res writing. Beginning mainly with the James Bond films, many action films have a prologue pre-credits action sequence unrelated to the main storyline of the film - however, after the opening credits the main storyline of the film gets started with traditional exposition. About half the James Bond films open this way.

In video games

Some story-based video games may begin in medias res by starting near the end of the plot, which usually is a final, cumulative battle of sorts, before allowing the player to begin the actual story. One example of a game that exhibits this phenomenon would be Pitfall: The Lost Expedition, which begins with Pitfall Harry facing off against a demon jaguar, the game's penultimate boss. Other examples include how The Conduit begins with Agent Ford fighting off alien invaders in an underground subway and entering the titular Conduit at the game's climax, how Monkey Island 2: LeChuck's Revenge opens with protagonist Guybrush Threepwood narrating the bulk of the game's events to Elaine Marley before the game continues on from that point, how some versions of The Lord of the Rings: Aragorn's Quest begin with Aragorn entering the Black Gate to engage Sauron's army in one final battle as the Ring is carried to Mount Doom, and how some versions of the tie-in game for Up begin just moments before a final aerial battle against Charles Muntz and his personal canine air force over Paradise Falls.


In medias res Wikipedia