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Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa

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Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa (Jawi: حكاية مروڠ مهاوڠسا ), alternatively spelt Hikayat Marong Mahawangsa and also known as The Kedah Annals, The work is thought to have been written in the late 18th century or some time in the 19th century. Though there are historical accuracies, there are many incredible assertions. The era covered by the text ranged from the opening of Kedah by Merong Mahawangsa, allegedly a descendant of Alexander the Great of Macedonia till the acceptance of Islam.


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The initial part of the story to submit stories of kings and the opening of the state based on myths and legends or fantasy stories of a trusted community, whether local character, the character of Hindu or stories that come from the influence of Islam. In part this is the saga of this state that the ancestors of the kings of Kedah is Merong Mahawangsa king, a king who not only has family ties to the King of the Romans but also the trust of the King Roman dignitaries.

The Royal Fleet of Merong Mahawangsa was sailing from Rome to China and was suddenly attacked by a legendary giant Phoenix called Garuda. He crashed into the shore of the modern day Kedah. He opened a state called Langkasuka and became king. He returned to Rome after his son, King Merong Mahapudisat became king. Langkasuka changed its name to the Kedah Zamin Turan. Guided by the advice given by his father, King Mahapudisat would later divide the Kingdom into three; Kingdom of Siam to his eldest son; Kingdom of Perak to his second and Kingdom of Pattani to his youngest. The youngest son of replacing their father as King of Kedah with the title King Seri Mahawangsa. The Kings traditional start is when they send flower with gold and silver flowers as gifts to their sons and daughters every year, and later to their ancestors.

King Seri Mahawangsa dies after upset with his son who do not obey the order and replaced by the prince with the title King of the Seri is Inderawangsa. Next is the son of the King Seri Inderawangsa became king with the title of Raja Ong Maha Perita greater sense of well known in the history of the state of Kedah as King Bersiong . When the king after the abdication Bersiong resisted because of his wickedness, his son crowned King Phra Ong Mahapudisat. King was succeeded by his son, King Phra Ong Mahawangsa which later became the first king of Kedah converted to Islam. Sheikh Abdullah Yamani Mudzafar changed his name to Sultan Shah

The annal also describes Chola's empire trades on Kedah. The tribute was sent to the Chola Empire on every year by the Kedah Sultanate to the Chola Empire and after to the Siam. We still can find the antique and god statue of Chola Dynasty in Kedah. The descendants of Phra Ong Mahawangsa is still ruling Kedah able to trace their lineage from Merong Mahawangsa. He named Kedah at that time 'Langkasuka', for which 'Langka' meant 'the land of glory' in Sanskrit, while 'suka' means 'joy' or 'happiness'.

The descendants of Merong Mahawangsa

Below is the list of the eight rulers of Langkasuka, Merong and his descendants, according to the Kedah Annals:

  • King Merong Mahawangsa: A ruler from Rome who later settled in Bujang Valley and founded the Kingdom of Langkasuka. He is said to be a descendant to Alexander the Great. He was a Hindu king. Merong had three sons, Merong Mahapudisat, Ganjil Sarjuna, and Seri Mahawangsa, and a daughter, Raja Puteri, who is the second youngest in the family. He was later succeeded by his eldest son, Merong Mahapudisat. Merong then left to Rome, leaving his son the ruler of Langkasuka.
  • King Merong Mahapudisat: He became the king of Langkasuka after his father, Merong Mahawangsa went back to Rome. He was the eldest son. Legends say that he was also the first king of Siam.
  • King Ganjil Sarjuna: He was crowned king after his brother's death. He was the second eldest in the family. He founded the Gangga Negara kingdom.
  • Raja Puteri (in English, King Princess): She became the King of Langkasuka after her brother Ganjil Sarjuna died. She is the youngest daughter in the family. She was also the first ruler of Pattani.
  • King Seri Mahawangsa: He became the king of Langkasuka after his brother, Ganjil Sarjuna died.
  • Seri Maha Inderawangsa: He is the son of Seri Mahawangsa. He was called "Raja Bersiong" or the Fanged King because of his cannibalistic behaviour of drinking human blood. He was the successor of Seri Mahawangsa, but because of his behaviour, the ministers of the kingdom had no choice but to revolt against him. He fled to Mount Jerai, where he remained hidden for a long time and later had a son, who was called Phra Ong Mahapudisat. His son, unknowing of his royal lineage, lived in his mother's village before being called to the palace and had his identity revealed.
  • King Phra Ong Mahapudisat: After Seri Mahawangsa's death, Langkasuka needed a successor that had a royal blood. Phra Ong Mahapudist was crowned king after his father's death.
  • Sultan Mudzafar Shah, Phra Ong Mahawangsa: He was the only son of Phra Ong Mahapudisat. He was originally Hindu, but when Islam first came to the Malay Peninsula, he became a Muslim, changed his name into Sultan Mudzafar Shah, and the Kingdom of Langkasuka into the Kedah Sultanate.
  • In popular culture

    KD Mahawangsa is a Royal Malaysian Navy vessel named in the ancient monarch's honour.

    A 2011 epic action adventure film loosely based on the myth was produced by KRU Studios also titled Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa (also known by its international title The Malay Chronicles: Bloodlines), directed by Yusry A. Halim.


    Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa Wikipedia

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