Neha Patil

Heritage of Xiguan

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Heritage of Xiguan

National Cultural Heritages (National historic sites and cultural objects under state protection)

There are two Major Sites Protected at the National Level in Xiguan:

Contents

  • Architectural complex on Shamian Island (Chinese: 沙面建築群)
  • Chen Clan Academy (Chinese: 陳家祠)
  • Chan Clan Academy

    Main article: Chen Clan Academy

    陳家祠(Chen Clan Ancestral Hall),又稱陳氏書院(Chen Clan Academy),於 清 光緒 十六年(1890年)興建,由 黎巨林 設計,以其"三雕、三塑、一鑄鐵"而著稱,號稱"百粵冠祠"。

    始建時用作 廣東 各縣 陳氏 子弟來 省城 應 科舉 時學習及住宿場所,也是祭祀祖宗的宗祠。

    陳家祠坐落北朝南,為三進院落式佈局,由9座廳堂、6個院落、10座廂房和長廊巷組成。主體建築占地6400平方米,寬80米、深80米,以"三進三路九堂兩廂杪"佈設。

    穿插六院八廊,全院的門、窗、屏、牆、欄、梁架、屋脊等處均有精美的各式 木雕、石雕、磚雕、灰塑、陶塑、銅鐵 鑄等藝術品。

    主體建築正門兩邊的外牆上,6幅大型磚雕 梁山聚義、梧桐杏柳鳳凰群 等。

    尤具特色的還有第二進後側長廊上的柚木屏門雙面鏤雕,分別雕有歷代歷史故事和民間傳說 "三顧茅廬"、"赤壁之戰"等20幅木雕,被讚譽為"木刻鋼刀雕就的中國歷史故事長廊"。

    中路一、二進間的院子內有石欄杆鑲嵌的鐵鑄雙通花欄板"金玉滿堂"、"三羊啟泰" 。

    郭沫若 曾賦詩讚美陳家祠的建築藝術:"天工人可代,人工天不如。果然造世界,勝讀十年書。"

    陳氏書院是全國重點文物保護單位,1996年被評為"廣州十大旅遊美景"之首。

    Provincial Cultural Heritages (provincial historic sites and cultural objects under protection)

    The are 3 Provincial Cultural Heritages in Xiguan:

  • Guangya Academy (Chinese: 廣雅書院)
  • Guangdong Postal Building (Chinese: 廣東郵務大樓)
  • Guangdong Customs House (Chinese: 粵海關大樓)
  • Municipal Cultural Heritages (municipal historic sites and cultural objects under protection)

    The are 13 Municipal Cultural Heritages in Xiguan:

  • Hall of the Arhats in Hualin Temple (Chinese: 華林寺羅漢堂)
  • Martyrs Memorial Monument of Shaji Massacre (Chinese: 沙基慘案烈士紀念碑)
  • Renwei Temple (Chinese: 仁威廟)
  • Old pawnshop on Huagui Lu (Chinese: 華貴路舊當鋪)
  • Taihua Building (Chinese: 泰華樓)
  • Xiguan Residences (Chinese: 西關大屋建築)
  • Archaeological site of Barbican and West City Gate of Guangzhou in Ming Dynasty (Ximenkou or West Gate) (Chinese: 廣州明代西城門甕城遺址(西門口))
  • Jinlun Guild Hall (Chinese: 錦綸會館)
  • Nanfang Building (or Nanfang Mansion) (Chinese: 南方大廈)
  • Old pawnshop on Zhongshan Qilu (Chinese: 中山七路舊當鋪)
  • Old residential buildings (Chinese: 舊民居建築)
  • Huang Baojian's stone house (Chinese: 黃寶堅石屋)
  • Five-mouthed Wells (Chinese: 五眼井)
  • Hualin Temple

    Hualin Temple (Chinese: 華林寺; pinyin: Huálín Sì; Jyutping: Waa4 Lam4 Zi2) is located in Hualinsi Qianjie (Chinese: 華林寺前街; pinyin: Huálínsì Qiánjiē; Jyutping: Waa4 Lam4 Zi2 Cin4 Gaai1; literally: "Hualin Temple Frontstreet"), Xilai Chudi (Chinese: 西來初地; pinyin: Xīlái Chūdì; Jyutping: Sai1 Loi4 Co1 Dei6-2; literally: "The first place where a monk from the West (i.e., Bodhidharma) arrived"), Xiajiu Lu (Chinese: 下九路; pinyin: Xiàjiǔ Lù; Jyutping: Haa6 Gau2 Lou6; literally: "Lower 9th Rd."). Its predecessor was Xilai Buddhist Convent (Chinese: 西來庵; pinyin: Xīlái Ān; Jyutping: Sai1 Loi4 Am1), set up during Emperor Wu of Liang (Chinese: 梁武帝) years (20s, 6th century), Southern and Northern Dynasties (Chinese: 南北朝) by an Indian eminent monk, Bodhidharma (Chinese: 達摩), after he set up an altar to preach Buddhism. In 1655 (12th year of Shunzhi Emperor (Chinese: 順治帝), Qing Dynasty), Zen Master Zongfu (Chinese: 宗符禪師) initiated its rehabilitation and changed its name to Hualin Temple. There used to be an Gilded Ashoka Pagoda (Chinese: 阿育王塔) and 500 Arhats' statues (Chinese: 五百羅漢像) but some of them were destroyed afterwards.

    Renwei temple

    Locate at front street of Renwei Temple, Longjin West Rd. It is in the old Bantang village, around 2,200 square kilometers area. The temple is for Zhenwu Emperor of Taoism, originally named Beidi Temple. It established in 1052 and it was the largest temple by the period. The government used to repair it in 1622, 1736 - 1795 and 1862 - 1874. (仁威廟 位於 龍津西路 仁威廟前街,舊泮塘鄉內,占地2200 平方米,供奉 道教 真武帝。初建時稱北帝廟。是當時泮塘恩洲十八鄉最古老和最大的廟字。仁威廟始建于 宋代 皇佑 四年(1052年)於明代天啟二年(1622年)、清代乾隆 年間 (1736年-1795年)和 同治年間 (1862年-1874年)有過較大規模的維修。)

    Jinlun Guild Hall

    位於 下九路 [西來新街 21號,占地面積 700平方米,始建于 清 雍正 元年,有近300年的歷史,是座祠堂式的三進深磚木結構的建築,鍋耳屋的外觀,現館內保留有木雕、磚雕、陶塑、碑刻等。綿綸會館是廣州絲織業(即"錦綸行")的行業公會,是目前廣州市唯一的行業會館,是近代中國 資本主義 萌芽的見證。

    廣州紡織業起步較早,到明清時已臻成熟,錦綸會館印證了廣州市紡織業的繁榮。廣州全盛期擁有紡織手工業工人3、4萬人之多,而所產絲織品因質地精美而為海外和國內青睞,雍正年間的廣東通志載:"粵緞之質密而勻,其色鮮華,光輝滑澤——金陵,蘇杭皆不及"。現廣州博物館仍藏有數匹當時廣州產的彩緞。廣州紡織業的手工業工人,後來發展成近代的 工人階級。

    Five-mouthed Wells

    Five-mouthed Wells (Chinese: 五眼井; pinyin: Wǔyǎn Jǐng; Jyutping: Ng5 Ngaan5 Zeng2), alternatively known as (Chinese: 五眼泉; pinyin: Wǔyǎn Quán; Jyutping: Ng5 Ngaan5 Cyun4), lie next to Hualin Temple.

    Taihua Building

    Taihua Building (Chinese: 泰華樓; pinyin: Tàihuá Loú; Jyutping: Taai3 Waa4 Lau4) is located at No.27, Duobao Fang (Chinese: 多寶坊; pinyin: Duōbǎo Fāng; Jyutping: Do1 Bou2 Fong1; literally: "Treasure Lane"), Enning Lu. It used to be the study of Li Wentian (Chinese: 李文田), the Tanhua (Chinese: 探花; pinyin: Tànhuā; Jyutping: Taam3 Faa1; literally: "No.3 in national civil examinations in feudal China or the 3rd place in imperial examination or No.3 scholar") during Xianfeng Emperor (Chinese: 咸豐帝) years, Qing Dynasty. The building had a collection of 100 thousand books, some of which were lost during Second Sino-Japanese War (Chinese: 抗日戰爭). Moreover, some of the calligraphy works and paintings were taken away during Cultural Revolution (Chinese: 文化大革命).

    Registered Cultural Heritages (registered historic sites and cultural objects under protection)

    The are 11 Registered Cultural Heritages in Xiguan:

  • Wen Tower (Chinese: 文塔)
  • Liang Clan Ancestral Hall (Chinese: 梁家祠)
  • Stele at Qinghao Archaic office of Wenlan Academy (Chinese: 文瀾書院清濠公所石碑)
  • Stele at Permanent Senate of Senior Official Lu who initiated Yue (Guangdong) (Chinese: 開越陸大夫駐節故址碑)
  • Taotaoju Tea House (Chinese: 陶陶居)
  • Lianxianglou Tea House (Chinese: 蓮香樓)
  • Taying Building (Chinese: 塔影樓)
  • Former site of Lingnan Institute of Art & Literature (Chinese: 嶺南藝苑舊址)
  • Guangzhou Restaurant (Chinese: 廣州酒家)
  • Panxi Restaurant (Chinese: 泮溪酒家)
  • Xiehe Hall (Chinese: 協和堂)
  • Wen Tower

    With a height of 13 meters, the Wen Tower (Chinese: 文塔; pinyin: Wéntǎ; Jyutping: Man4 Taap8; literally: "Pagoda of the God of Culture and Literature") stands in Pantang (Chinese: 泮塘; pinyin: Pàntáng; Jyutping: Bun6-3 Tong4-2; literally: "Half Pond"), which used to be the flowery orchard of King Liu (Chinese: 劉王; pinyin: Liúwáng; Jyutping: Lau4 Wong4) in Southern Han (Chinese: 南漢; pinyin: Nánhàn; Jyutping: Naam4 Hon3). It was built to enshrine and worship Wenqu Xing (Chinese: 文曲星; pinyin: Wénq Xng; Jyutping: Man4 Kuk7 Sing1; literally: "God of Culture and Literature or scientifically Delta Ursae Majoris") sometime between Mid-Ming Period and Early Qing.

    Heritages preservation measures

    Cultural Heritages Management Office of Liwan District (Chinese: 荔灣區文物管理所) was founded in 1998.

    The Cultural Heritages Preservation Liaison System among the District, Subdistricts and residential communities (Chinese: 區、街道、社區三級文物保護聯絡制度) was founded in 2001.

    Liwan Government had invested funds of totally 59.383 million RMB yuan to preserve cultural heritages by 2001.

    References

    Heritage of Xiguan Wikipedia


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