Albrecht grew up in the riding in which he was elected and was educated in the Waterloo Region at Waterloo-Oxford District Secondary School, and then at Waterloo Lutheran University (which is now Wilfrid Laurier University). Albrecht went on to complete his Doctorate of Dental Surgery at the University of Toronto.
Albrecht owns a hobby farm in between Petersburg and New Dundee, and he and his wife Betty were married for seven weeks less than 40 years. They have three children and nine grandchildren. On the night of May 2, 2011 Harold's wife suffered a brain hemorrhage while they were preparing for his election victory party, and died two days later in hospital.
In July 2013 Albrecht married Darlene McLean.
Albrecht owned a private dental practice in the Kitchener region for twenty-seven years. During his dentistry career, Albrecht also lent his professional skills on many short-term Christian mission trips with the Christian Medical-Dental Society in Honduras and Dominican Republic, as well as trips to Venezuela, Colombia, Zambia, Nepal and India.
Albrecht served as a school board trustee on the Waterloo County Board of Education from 1978 to 1982, and was the Chair of the Board from 1981 to 1982.
In 1999, Albrecht left his dentistry practice to found and pastor Pathway Community Church in the Doon area of Kitchener. The church started meeting in November of that year, with a small congregation of around 70 people. It also became the third Brethren in Christ church in the Kitchener-Waterloo area. Albrecht pastored the church until 2005, when he announced a leave of absence to seek the Conservative Party nomination in his riding. When he won the nomination, he permanently resigned his leadership position from the Church.
Albrecht is the Member of Parliament for the riding of Kitchener-Conestoga in Canada's House of Commons. He has held this seat since the 2006 federal election.
Albrecht favours reforming Canada's Youth Criminal Justice Act. In particular, he would like to see stiffer sentences for young offenders who commit violent crimes. His interest was sparked by the Justice for Dustin Campaign – an endeavour by the family of a murdered Kitchener teen to see stricter sentences for violent young offenders.
In 2006, Albrecht ran as the Conservative candidate in the riding of Kitchener-Conestoga. Albrecht won the election with 20,615 votes – 41.22% of the votes. He defeated Liberal incumbent, Lynn Myers, as well as NDP candidate, Len Carter and Green Party candidate Kristine Stapleton.
In the 39th Parliament, Albrecht was a member of the Standing Committee on Government Operations and Estimates, the Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development, and the Legislative Committee on Bill C-2.
In 2008, Albrecht was re-elected as the Member of Parliament for the riding of Kitchener-Conestoga. Albrecht won with 23,525 votes – 49.32% of the votes, defeating Liberal candidate Orlando Da Silva, NDP candidate Rod Mcneil and Green Party candidate Jamie Kropf.
In the 40th Parliament, Albrecht was a member of the Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs, the Subcommittee on Agenda and Procedure of the Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs, the Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development, the Standing Joint Committee on Scrutiny of Regulations and the Standing Committee on Access to Information, Privacy and Ethics.
Albrecht was also member and chair of the Subcommittee on Private Members' Business of the Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs.
On November 21, 2008, Prime Minister Stephen Harper named Albrecht Deputy Government Whip.
On May 2, 2011, Albrecht was re-elected for the third consecutive election as the Member of Parliament for the riding of Kitchener-Conestoga. Albrecht received 28,902 votes – 54.12%, defeating NDP candidate Lorne Bruce, Liberal candidate Bob Rosehart and Green Party candidate Albert Ashley.
On the night of Albrecht's electoral win, his wife of nearly 40 years Betty Albrecht suffered an unexpected brain hemorrhage. She was hospitalized and died two days later at the Hamilton General Hospital.
In the 41st Parliament, Albrecht has served as a member of the Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs, the Subcommittee on Agenda and Procedure of the Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs, the Subcommittee on International Human Rights of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development, the Liaison Committee, and the Standing Committee on Transport, Infrastructure and Communities.
Albrecht has also served as a member and chair on the Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development, the Subcommittee on Agenda and Procedure of the Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development, and the Subcommittee on Private Members’ Business of the Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs.
Albrecht was renamed the Deputy Government Whip on May 5, 2011, and served in this capacity until January 27, 2013.
In the 41st Parliament, Albrecht sponsored a Private Member's Bill - Bill C-300, An Act Respecting a Federal Framework for Suicide Prevention. Bill C-300 "establishes a requirement for the Government of Canada to develop a federal framework for suicide prevention in consultation with relevant non-governmental organizations, the relevant entity in each province and territory, as well with relevant federal department."
Albrecht's Bill C-300 received royal assent and came into force on December 14, 2014.
In his capacity as a parliamentarian, Albrecht is a member of the Auto Caucus, the Energy Caucus, the Rural Caucus, and the Pro-Life Caucus. Albrecht is also the founder and chair of the BioCaucus, a group of MPs who work to promote the production of agricultural and renewable technologies. Additionally, Albrecht is the Chair of the Canada-Armenia Parliamentary Friendship Group and the Chemical Caucus.
In 2017, Albrecht came out in opposition to flying the rainbow pride flag at Waterloo Region District School Board schools.