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Hajduszoboszlo is a town in Hajdu-Bihar county, Hungary, 19 kilometres (12 miles) southwest of county seat Debrecen. It is the third largest town in Hajdu-Bihar county.
The town is located in the northeastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain. Three regions meet next to the town: the Hajduhat ridge from the north-north-east, the Hortobagy National Park (Puszta) from the north-north-west, and the Great Sarret and Berettyo region from the south. Szoboszlo lies at a height of scarcely 100 to 110 metres (328–361 ft) above sea level and slopes down a little towards Hortobagy.
This is a landscape "where the earth and the skies meet", it is not a monotonous plain, not even for travellers accustomed to romantic mountains, since here and there the landscape is enlivened by the backwaters of the Tisza river with patches of reed, thousands of wild fowl, and inviting groves. The surroundings are the renowned puszta, the "glorious plain".
From historical data, scattered findings and archaeological explorations in recent years, this part of the Great Plain was inhabited as far back as the Great Migrations. Because of the natural resources and the convergence of trade routes, Huns, Vandals, Gepids, Goths, Avars, frequently alternated with one another in this area. In the first phase of the reign of the Arpad Dynasty, this area was inhabited by populous communities. The first written mention of Szoboszlo dates back to 1075, when King Geza I. donated half of Szoboszlos royal duty taxes to the new abbacy to be established at Garamszentbenedek.
With his deed of gift, decorated with his coat of arms and dated on 2 September 1606, Istvan Bocskai, Prince of Transylvania provided homes for 700 Hajdu (Heyduck) cavalrymen at the site of Szoboszlo, which had formerly been destroyed by the Tartars of Crimea. This is why the prefix "Hajdu" was attached to the settlements name of Slavonic origin. But this form - Hajduszoboszlo - only became widespread in the 19th century. The town led the customary, toilsome life of the small agricultural, stock-breeding towns of Hajdu County, until the end of the first third of the 20th century.
The upswing of the town commenced from 26 October 1925, with the breaking up of the thermal spring. The medicinal water received an ever increasing role. The towns development into a resort place started and agriculture retained its significant role even after the discovery of the gas field.