Shinnie started his career playing for a boy's club in Aberdeen, alongside brother Andrew.
He joined Inverness Caledonian Thistle in July 2009, at the age of 17. He made his senior debut for them in the Scottish League Cup on 1 August 2009, before making his League debut on 26 September 2009.
Shinnie went on loan to Forres Mechanics in the Scottish Highland Football League in February 2010. His loan spell with Forres Mechanics was extended until the end of the season.
Shinnie was offered a contract extension by Inverness on 30 November 2010, agreeing a 3-year deal on 13 December 2010. Shinnie suffered an intestinal problem that stopped him from playing between January and August 2011.
In the 2011–12 season, Graeme's brother, Andrew joined Inverness on a free transfer from Rangers. Shinnie scored his first goal of his Inverness career on 27 August 2011 in a 2–1 win over Kilmarnock and after the match, manager Terry Butcher expressed delighted for Shinnie on his first goal. Following a 3–1 loss against Dundee United on 17 September 2011, captain Richie Foran spoken out about Shinnie, stating he was worthy of pass marks. After two-months spell out for the side, Shinnie made his return in a 2–1 loss against Rangers on 17 December 2011. Despite the performance, Butcher would praise the returning of Shinnie and Lee Cox.
In December 2012, Shinnie signed a new contract extension, keeping him until 2015, having vowed to remain at the club.
In the final of the Scottish League Cup, Shinnie played throughout the match until it went to a penalty shoot-out, in which Aberdeen won the Scottish League Cup.
In April 2014 he was selected to the 2013–14 Premiership PFA Scotland Team of the Year.
In April 2015, Shinnie helped Inverness to reach the 2015 Scottish Cup Final. Inverness went on to win the trophy, beating Falkirk 2–1 on 30 May 2015, with Shinnie lifting the trophy as captain in his last game for the club.
In January 2015 it was announced that Shinnie had signed a three-year contract with Aberdeen, despite interest from Football League Championship clubs, and would join the club when the summer transfer window opened in June 2015. He made his competitive debut for Aberdeen on 2 July 2015, against FK Shkëndija in the first qualifying round of the Europa League. He scored his first goal for Aberdeen on 9 August 2015, in a 2–0 win against Kilmarnock in a Scottish Premiership league game. Shinnie signed a new contract, due to run until summer 2019, with Aberdeen in January 2017.
Shinnie made his debut for the Scotland national under-21 football team in April 2012. On 29 September 2015 Shinnie was called up to the senior squad by Gordon Strachan for games against Poland and Gibraltar.
Shinnie is the younger brother of fellow footballer Andrew Shinnie, who joined him at Inverness in 2011. The first time that the two brothers faced each other in a competitive game was in a 2016–17 Scottish Cup semi-final, between Andrew's Hibernian and Graeme's Aberdeen.As of 24 September 2017
Inverness Caledonian Thistle
Scottish Cup: 2015