Following independence, Galkayo was made the center of the Galkayo District. The city has grown considerably in recent times and serves as a commercial hub. According to the UNDP it had a population of 137,667 in 2005.
Following the independence of Somalia in 1960, Gaalkacyo was made the center of Galkayo District and the capital of Mudug region.
Galkayo is situated in north-central Somalia, in the heart of the Mudug region. Nearby settlements include to the east godad (7.1 nm), to the northeast bali busle (16.2 nm), to the north Halobooqad (4.4 nm), to the northwest Beyra (12.8 nm), to the west xera jaale-bayra (23.8 nm), to the southwest saaxo (30 nm), to the south Laascadale (10.2 nm), and to the southeast Arfuda (13.0 nm). The largest cities in the country most proximate to Galkayo are Hobyo (217 km), Garowe (219 km) and Qardho (358 km). Shimbiris, the highest peak in Somalia, is located some 432 km to the north in the Cal Madow mountain range.
Galkayo has a hot arid climate (Köppen BWh). Coldest average temperatures occur during the winter months of November to February, when thermometer readings range from 23 to 25 °C (73 to 77 °F). The weather slowly heats up in the spring, as the April rainy season begins. Average temperatures later reach a maximum of around 41 °C over the summer period. Come September, a gradual fall chill starts to set in again.
Galkayo is situated in the north-central part of Somalia, and is one of the most developed towns in the region. The city is divided into four main districts called Garsoor, Hormar, Israac is part of Puntland. , and Wadajir districts respectively.
Although relatively stable compared to southern Somalia, sporadic targeted assassination attempts by Al-Shabaab militants against Puntland public officials led in 2010-2011 to a police crackdown and comprehensive administrative reform. The Puntland and Galmudug administrations subsequently signed an accord in Garowe in February 2011, officially agreeing to cooperate on security, economic and social matters so as to strengthen inter-regional relations.
A lively trading city, Galkayo is a center for local business. Hotels, guest houses, restaurants, supermarkets and newly erected office blocks earmarked for the government and NGOs line the streets, juxtaposed by the tall minarets of masjids. The city also offers numerous social services such as hospitals, petrol stops and police stations, with the former Somali Army barracks kept in good condition and renovated.
Moreover, Galkayo is a hub of calligraphic art, serving as a training ground of sorts for local visual artists. Elaborate murals and phrases in Arabic and English adorn the walls of the city's many office and shop buildings.
It has an estimated population of 545,000 inhabitants as of 2017. Somalia Clan tensions in the area have historically been high. Puntland areas of the city such as Israac, Hormar and Garsoor neighborhoods of Galkayo is primarily inhabited by Somalis from the Madhiban and Majeerteen(Darood) clans. The Leelkase, Wagardhac Marehan and reer Bicidyahan are dominant in parts of Garsoor, a neighborhood of Galkayo. Neighborhood of Wadajir in Galmudug area of the city is mainly inhabited by the Sa'ad Habar Gidir, a Hawiye clan.The Saleban Abdalle sub-clan of the Dir are well represented.
Galkayo has a number of academic institutions. The city is home to Mudug University in Puntland, Galkayo University in Galmudug side of the city and There are 40 primary and secondary schools in the Galkayo District. Among these are the SYL school in Wadajir; Mudug secondry School in Wadajir Al-Qudus in Horumar; and Barkhadle in Garsoor, Secondary schools in the area include SYL, Abdullahi Issa and it is built late of 1990, Omar Samatar and Galkayo High. In addition, several new schools were opened in 2012.
Galkayo is home to Abdullahi Issa Stadium, a sporting facility which is named in memory of Abdullahi Issa, the first Prime Minister of Somalia. The stadium hosts to many local football clubs including FC YAMAYS, RPS FC, Dowladda Hoose FC, Homboboro FC, Telecom FC and Galcom FC. In addition, the city has various courts set aside for basketball. It soccer fields and volleyball.
Air transportation in Galacyo is served by the Abdullahi Yusuf Airport, operated by Puntland and Oshaco International Airport operated by Galmudug. In September 2013, the Somali federal government signed an official cooperation agreement with its Chinese counterpart in Mogadishu as part of a five-year national recovery plan. The pact will see the Chinese authorities reconstruct several major infrastructural landmarks in the Somali capital and elsewhere, as well as the road linking Galkayo with Burao.
Various media organizations are based in Galkayo. These include Radio Daljir, Radio Galmudug and Radio Codka-Mudug. Radio Gaalkacyo, formerly known as Radio Free Somalia, also broadcasts from the city.
Several establishments in Galkayo offer accommodation. Among these hotels and guest houses are the Mecca Hotel, the Five Star Hotel and the Embassy Classic Hotel hotel saylan and unlaye hotel have more than 100 rooms al khalij hotel and google hotel kamal hotel is the first modren hotel having more than 50 rooms built late of 1980 two floors. Sugulle compound is the best and biggest hotel of the mudug region and match more, most of them are in Putland side
Galkayo consists of the following neighborhoods: Wadajir, Israac, Horumar, and Garsoor. Abdi Bashiir Indhobuur - poet and playwright who composed of many patriotic songs.
Abdirizak Haji Hussein – former Prime Minister of Somalia, and former Secretary General of the Somali Youth League.
Abdiweli Mohamed Ali – President of Puntland, and former Prime Minister of Somalia.
Abdi Qeybdiid – President of Galmudug, and former Interior Minister of Somalia.
Abdulkadir Abdi Hashi – MP in Federal Parliament, and former State Minister of the Presidency for Planning and International Relations of Puntland.
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed – former President of Somalia, President of Puntland and leader in the Somali Salvation Democratic Front, and one of the founders of the Puntland State of Somalia, the Transitional Federal Government and the Somali Salvation Democratic Front.
Asha Gelle Dirie – former Minister of Women Development and Family Affairs of Puntland.
Mohamed Warsame Ali – first President of Galmudug, former Ambassador of Somalia to the US, former Minister of Commerce, Public Works, and Sports & Youth Affairs.
Waris Dirie – model, actress, author and activist.
Zakaria Mohamed Haji-Abdi – leader of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia.
Mohamed Farrah Aidid former warlord of Somalia, Former Ambassador of Somalia to India and the leader of Somali National Alliance