Occupation mathematician Name G. Spencer-Brown | Role Author | |

Full Name George Spencer-Brown Born 2 April 1923 (age 92) (1923-04-02) Grimsby, Lincolnshire, England Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge Education Trinity College, Cambridge Books Laws of Form, Only two can play this game, Autobiography, 23 degrees of Paradise Influenced by Charles Sanders Peirce, Ludwig Wittgenstein, R. D. Laing Similar People Niklas Luhmann, Heinz von Foerster, Louis Kauffman, Francisco Varela, Humberto Maturana |

## Creating something out of nothing according to g spencer brown and tarthang tulku

**George Spencer-Brown** (2 April 1923 – 25 August 2016) was an English polymath best known as the author of *Laws of Form*. He described himself as a "mathematician, consulting engineer, psychologist, educational consultant and practitioner, consulting psychotherapist, author, and poet".

## Contents

- Creating something out of nothing according to g spencer brown and tarthang tulku
- Life
- Laws of Form
- Other mathematics
- Selected publications
- References

## Life

Born in Grimsby, Lincolnshire, England, Spencer-Brown attended Mill Hill School and then passed the First M.B. in 1940 at London Hospital Medical College (now part of Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry). After serving in the Royal Navy (1943–47), he studied at Trinity College Cambridge, earning Honours in Philosophy (1950) and Psychology (1951), and where he met Bertrand Russell. From 1952 to 1958, he taught philosophy at Christ Church, Oxford, took M.A. degrees in 1954 from both Oxford and Cambridge, and wrote his doctorate thesis *Probability and Scientific Inference* under the supervision of William Kneale which was released as a book in 1957.

During the 1960s, he became a disciple of the innovative Scottish psychiatrist R. D. Laing, frequently cited in *Laws of Form*. In 1964, on Bertrand Russell's recommendation, he became a lecturer in formal mathematics at the University of London. From 1969 onward, he was affiliated with the Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics at the University of Cambridge. In the 1970s and 1980s, he was visiting professor at the University of Western Australia, Stanford University, and at the University of Maryland, College Park.

During his time at Cambridge Spencer-Brown was a chess half-blue. He held two world records as a glider pilot, and was a sports correspondent to the *Daily Express*. He has also written some novels and poems, sometimes employing the pen name *James Keys*. Spencer-Brown died on 25 August 2016.

## Laws of Form

*Laws of Form*, at once a work of mathematics and of philosophy, emerged from work in electronic engineering Spencer-Brown did around 1960, and from lectures on mathematical logic he later gave under the auspices of the University of London's extension program. First published in 1969, it has never been out of print. Spencer-Brown referred to the mathematical system of *Laws of Form* as the "primary algebra" and the "calculus of indications"; others have termed it "boundary algebra." The primary algebra is essentially an elegant minimalist notation for the two-element Boolean algebra, very similar to formal systems that Charles Sanders Peirce devised in work written in the 1880s and 90s (see entitative graph and existential graph), but in some cases not published until after the first edition of *Laws of Form*.

*Laws of Form* has influenced, among others, Heinz von Foerster, Louis Kauffman, Niklas Luhmann, Humberto Maturana, Francisco Varela and William Bricken. Some of these authors have modified and extended the primary algebra, with interesting consequences.

## Other mathematics

In a 1976 letter to the Editor of *Nature*, Spencer-Brown claimed a proof of the four-color theorem, which is not computer-assisted. The preface of the 1979 edition of *Laws of Form* repeats that claim, and further states that the generally accepted computational proof by Appel, Haken, and Koch has 'failed' (page xii). Spencer-Brown's claimed proof of the four-color theorem has yet to find any defenders; Kauffman provides a detailed review of parts of that work.

## Selected publications

*Probability and Scientific Inference*.

*Design with the Nor*.

*23 degrees of Paradise*.

*Only Two can play this game*.

*Laws of Form*:

*Gesetze der Form*. Lübeck: Bohmeier Verlag. ISBN 3-89094-321-7

*Nature*. 17 December 1976.