As of May 1, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 265,408 and a population density of 500 persons per km². The total area is 536.17 km². Most of the population lives in a small central area; the city limits include rural plains, mountainous areas, and suburban sprawl along the Route 8 by-pass.
The city was incorporated under its present name on April 1, 1889, although it had been an important city in the region for at least 1000 years before that, serving as the capital of Echizen province during the Edo period (1603–1868).
Fukui was devastated by Allied bombing in 1945. American heavy bombers leveled some 86% of the city during the United States sustained strategic carpet-bombing campaign against the Empire of Japan. Fukui was again devastated by a major earthquake in 1948. The city has regained its energy and vitality. Hence the city's official symbol, the phoenix.
On February 1, 2006, the town of Miyama (from Asuwa District), the town of Shimizu, and the village of Koshino (both from Nyū District) were merged into Fukui.
Fukui has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot, humid summers and cool winters. Precipitation is high throughout the year, and is especially heavy in December and January.
Fukui is home to several companies, including:Aoyama Harp, the only harp manufacturer in Japan
Matsuura Machinery, an international heavy machinery manufacturing company
Morinaga Hokuriku Dairy, a dairy products subsidiary of Morinaga Milk Industry
Emori Shoji, a trading house with strong ties to China
Kumagai Gumi, a large general construction company, was founded and has its registered head office in the city.
Susumu Fujita, the founder of Cyberagent, one of Japan's largest internet companies, is from the city of Sabae in Fukui.
Fukui Station is the city's central railway station; it is a major stop on the JR West Hokuriku Main Line. It also serves as the terminus for the JR Etsumi-Hoku Line (Kuzuryū Line), the Fukui Railway Fukubu Line, and the Echizen Railway Mikuni Awara and Katsuyama Eiheiji lines.
The Hokuriku Shinkansen is currently under construction and will ultimately extend from Tokyo via Nagano and Kanazawa when completed.
Regular services are primarily provided by Keifuku Bus and Fukui Railway.
The Hokuriku Expressway provides access through the city to the north and south. The Fukui and Fukui-Kita interchanges are located within the city limits.
National Route 8, also known as the Fukui Bypass, parallels the Hokuriku Expressway through the city. Other major highways include:National Route 158
National Route 305/365
National Route 364
National Route 416
Ichijōdani Asakura Family Historic Ruins, one of the most important cultural heritage sites in Japan
Fukui Fine Arts Museum
Harmony Hall Fukui
Fukui International Activities Plaza
"Yoroppaken", creator of Fukui's trademark dish, sauce katsudon (ソースカツ丼)
Peace Pagoda, the second of its kind in the world, inaugurated in 1959
Fukui Prefectural University
University of Fukui
Fukui University of Technology
Jin-ai Women's College
Fukui College of Health Sciences
Fujishima Senior High School
Koshi Senior High School
Fukui Commercial Senior High School
Usui Senior High School
Asuwa Senior High School
Michimori Senior High School
Kagaku-Gijutsu Senior High School
Fukui Norin Senior High School
Hokuriku Senior High School
Fukui University of Technology - Fukui Senior High School
Jin-ai Girl's Senior High School
Keishin Senior High School
Fukui Minami Senior High School
Fukui Prefectural School for the Blind
Fukui Prefectural School for the Deaf
A North Korean school: Hokuriku Korean Elementary and Junior High School (北陸朝鮮初中級学校).
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Fukui was an important military target in the war efforts against Japan during World War II. That was because Fukui was an important industrial and railroad center. 95% percent of known industries were in the target area of the attack; which produced aircraft parts, electrical equipment, machine motors, various metal products and textiles. The attack was meant to destroy industries, disrupt rail communications, and decrease Japan’s recuperative potential. Bombing raids of the city took place on July 19, 1945. Of the city's 1.9 Sq. Miles at the time, 84.8% of Fukui was destroyed.