Old World flycatcher
| European pied flycatcher, Collared flycatcher, Red‑breasted flycatcher, Narcissus flycatcher, Mugimaki flycatcher|
The Ficedula flycatchers are a genus of Old World flycatchers. The genus is the largest in the family, containing around thirty species. They have sometimes been included in the genus Muscicapa. The genus is found in Europe, Asia and Africa. Several species are highly migratory, whereas other species are sedentary.
The genus was introduced by the French naturalist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760. The genus name is from Latin and refers to a small fig-eating bird (ficus, "fig") supposed to change into the blackcap in winter.
The genus contains the following species:European pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca
Atlas pied flycatcher, Ficedula speculigera
Collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis
Semicollared flycatcher, Ficedula semitorquata
Yellow-rumped flycatcher or Korean flycatcher, Ficedula zanthopygia
Narcissus flycatcher, Ficedula narcissina
Green-backed flycatcher, Ficedula elsae
Mugimaki flycatcher, Ficedula mugimaki
Slaty-backed flycatcher, Ficedula hodgsonii
Rufous-chested flycatcher, Ficedula dumetoria
Tanimbar flycatcher, Ficedula riedeli
Rufous-gorgeted flycatcher, Ficedula strophiata
Red-breasted flycatcher, Ficedula parva
Taiga flycatcher, Ficedula albicilla
Kashmir flycatcher, Ficedula subrubra
Snowy-browed flycatcher, Ficedula hyperythra
Little slaty flycatcher, Ficedula basilanica
Rufous-throated flycatcher, Ficedula rufigula
Cinnamon-chested flycatcher, Ficedula buruensis
Damar flycatcher, Ficedula henrici
Sumba flycatcher, Ficedula harterti
Palawan flycatcher, Ficedula platenae
Cryptic flycatcher, Ficedula crypta
Bundok flycatcher, Ficedula luzoniensis (Split from F. hyperythra)
Furtive flycatcher, Ficedula disposita
Lompobattang flycatcher, Ficedula bonthaina
Little pied flycatcher, Ficedula westermanni
Ultramarine flycatcher, Ficedula superciliaris
Slaty-blue flycatcher, Ficedula tricolor
Sapphire flycatcher, Ficedula sapphira
Black-and-orange flycatcher, Ficedula nigrorufa
Black-banded flycatcher, Ficedula timorensis
Formerly, some authorities also considered the following species (or subspecies) as species within the genus Ficedula:Indian black-naped blue monarch (as Siphia Styani)
A 2015 study on genomic pattern of differentiation, also known as islands of speciation by Burri et al., in the Ficedula flycatchers. Islands of differentiation are genomic regions with elevated measures of genetic differentiation. The authors examined island of differentiation within genomes and sought to answer (1) how they are formed and (2) what role they have in speciation. The flycatcher species complex is made up of four sister species and has a broad species range over all of Europe and parts of North Africa. The authors sequenced 200 genomes from 10 populations to an average of 14x coverage.
The authors tested two prominent models for the accumulation of islands of speciation, speciation with gene flow and linkage selection. Some of the expected patterns for islands of differentiation forming accumulating under a gene flow model and reduced sequence divergence outside the islands of differentiation compared to the rest of the genome and expansion of the islands of differentiation as reproductive isolation is reinforced during the speciation process. Based on the genomic data, expectations from the speciation with gene flow model were not well supported. Instead there was more support for the linkage selection model for islands of variation model. Such as an inverse correlation between recombination rate and differentiation, low amounts of ancestral variation in low recombining regions, and a positive relationship with nucleotide diversity and recombination rate. Some of the main findings from the study were:The differentiation landscapes were very similar across the four flycatcher species.
Tests using population genetic parameters to test assumptions indicated that differentiation landscape across the genomes were likely not caused by gene flow.
The signatures for background selection highly outweighed selective sweep signatures.
The flycatchers in the genus Ficedula are typically small with slender bodies and rounded heads. In many cases they are sexually dimorphic in their plumage, with the males being brightly or strikingly coloured and the females being duller or drabber.