The Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, Ferrari 400 and Ferrari 412 (Tipo F101) are front-engined V12 2+2 grand tourers made by Italian manufacturer Ferrari between 1972 and 1989. The three cars are closely related, using the same body, chassis and engine evolved over time.
Following Ferrari practice, their numeric designations refer to their engines' single-cylinder displacement expressed in cubic centimetres. The 365 GT4 2+2 was introduced in 1972 to replace the 365 GTC/4. It then evolved into the 400, the first Ferrari available with an automatic transmission. In 1979 the 400 was replaced by the fuel injected 400 i. The improved 412 ran from 1985 to 1989, bringing to an end Ferrari's longest-ever production series.
Although the option of an automatic transmission and compliance with U.S. emissions indicate it may have been designed for the American market, no version of these grand tourers was ever officially imported there. Many, however, entered as grey imports.
Ferrari turned to frequent styling partner Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina, whose three-box design for the 365 GT4 2+2 was a clear departure from its fastback predecessor, the 365 GTC/4. It followed Fioravanti's Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Daytona as the second Ferrari to feature the characteristic swage line dividing the body into upper and lower halves.
Various coachbuilders, such as Carrozzeria Pavesi and Straman, offered convertible conversions of the 400 series. Switzerland's Felber also showed a shooting brake version on 400 GT basis called the Felber Croisette at the 1981 Geneva Salon de l'Auto.
The tubular steel chassis was based on that of the GTC/4, but the wheelbase was lengthened 200 mm (7.9 in) to 2,700 mm (106.3 in). The bodies were steel, with a fiberglass floor; they were manufactured by Pininfarina at its Turin plant, then shipped fully finished to Modena where Ferrari assembled the cars. Suspension consisted of double wishbones, coil springs coaxial with the shock absorbers, and anti-roll bars all around; the rear axle featured an hydraulic self-levelling system. Under the bonnet there was a Tipo F 101 Colombo V12 that underwent many changes through the years. It was an alloy head and block, four overhead cams, 24-valve unit using wet sump lubrication. The transmission was conventionally coupled directly to the engine, as on the GTC/4, with a driveshaft connecting it to the rear limited slip differential. The steering was servo-assisted. Brakes were discs on all four wheels.
In 1972, just a year after the launch of the GTC/4, a new 2+2 debuted at the Paris Motor Show: the 365 GT4 2+2. The name refers to the single cylinder displacement (365 cc), four overhead camshafts (GT4) and seat configuration (2+2). Most of the mechanicals, including the 4,390.35 cc (4.39035 L; 267.916 cu in) engine, were carried over from its predecessor. The V12 used six side-draft Weber 38 DCOE 59/60 carburetors and produced 340 PS (250 kW; 340 bhp) at 6200 rpm. The gearbox was a five-speed, all-synchromesh manual with a single-plate clutch. Five-spoke alloy wheels were mounted on Rudge knock-off hubs; Borrani wire wheels were still offered at extra cost. Fittingly for a large grand tourer, standard equipment included leather upholstery, electric windows and air conditioning. The GT4 was replaced in 1976 by the nearly identical looking Ferrari 400.
At the 1976 Paris Motor Show Ferrari unveiled the replacement for the 365 GT4 2+2. The new 400 was offered in two models: 400 Automatic, using a GM THM400 3-speed automatic transmission, and 400 GT, using a five-speed transmission. The 400 Automatic was the first Ferrari to have an automatic transmission. The 365's V12 engine had been stroked to a displacement of 4.8 L (290 cu in) and given six 38 DCOE 110-111 Webers, and now produced 340 PS (250 kW). 0–60 mph took 7.1 seconds. Other changes compared to the 365 GT4 included five-stud wheels to replace the knock-off hubs (Borrani wheels weren't offered anymore), a revised interior, the addition of a lip to the front spoiler, and double circular tail light assemblies instead of triple. A total of 502 examples were produced, 355 of which were Automatics and 147 GTs.
The carburetors on the 400 were replaced with Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection in 1979. As in the smaller 308i, power was down to 310 PS (228 kW), but emissions were much improved, complying with U.S. standards. Top speed was 240 km/h (149 mph). Initially differences between the 400 and 400 i were limited to the fuel injected engine and an "i" badge on the tail.
Towards the end of 1982, the 400i was updated. New camshaft profiles and exhaust headers raised engine power to 315 hp (235 kW). The interior was significantly revised, gaining different upholstery, door panels, centre console and new electronic switchgear. On the exterior a narrower grille left the rectangular foglights exposed; the venting on the engine bonnet was changed from silver to body-colour. New, more elegant wing mirrors were fitted, bearing a small Ferrari shield. Around the back the tail panel was body-coloured instead of matte black, and foglamps were fitted in the bumper. Lower profile Michelin TRX tyres were adopted, on metric sized wheels. A total of 1305 examples were produced, 883 Automatics and 422 GTs.
In 1985 further improvements were made to the series, with the launch of the Ferrari 412 (chassis Tipo F 101 EL). The engine was bored 1 mm, for an increase in displacement to 5 L (305.1 cu in) - hence the name change to 412, or the single cylinder displacement in cubic centimetres. Both the manual and automatic transmissions were retained, but exterior badging didn't denote anymore the transmission type fitted. Bosch ABS was offered, a first for Ferrari. The body was altered, with a raised rear deck granting more luggage space. Pininfarina made many subtle tweaks to modernize the exterior. The bumpers were body-coloured; at the front there was a deeper spoiler, at the rear a black valence incorporated the foglamps and exhaust pipes. Side window trim was changed from chrome to black. The flat-faced wheels were new and fitted with TRX tires.
A total of 576 examples were made. Production ended in 1989 without a direct successor being immediately launched; the mid-engined Mondial remained the only Ferrari offering 2+2 seating. In 1992, after a three-year hiatus, the classic front-engine V12 2+2 grand tourer returned with the 456.
A black 1987 model of the 412 was used in the 2006 independent film Daft Punk's Electroma. It appears from after the opening credits to where the robots have their human masks developed and fitted.
It is rumoured the car used in filming was auctioned for charity, with the 'HUMAN' license plates signed by Thomas Bangalter and Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo (the duo of Daft Punk who directed Electroma.)
Today, its sleek, Pininfarina-designed lines and relatively limited production numbers have made many enthusiasts consider it a classic. It has not been universally admired however, and is listed at #18 in the BBC's book of "Crap Cars" and Jeremy Clarkson on Top Gear described it as "awful in every way". However, there have been many other favorable articles about the 400 series in the motoring press, including an outlying view expressed by UK motoring journalist L.J.K. Setright in CAR magazine in August 1984, who described it as "one of the few most beautiful, and one of the two most elegant, bodies ever to leave the lead of Pininfarina's pencilling vision".