Neha Patil

Establiments

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Establiments is a residential district in the Balearic Islands, northwest of Palma de Mallorca, Spain. The name is derived from the Catalan word for "establishments".

Contents

Map of Establiments, Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain

History

The core of Establishments dates to the 16th century, although the area surrounding the district has been occupied for much longer.

There are prehistoric remains in the Son Bauçà caves and Ca’n Mallol, as well as some talaiòtic remains.

During the period when much of Spain was under Muslim rule, approximately from the 700s-1400s AD, agriculture developed in the area.

After the conquest of Mallorca by the kingdom of Aragón, the land was transferred to Nunó Sanç. For centuries, the agrarian structure of the area was rooted in possessions of large estates, and Establiments emerged from upland rustic parceling of these possessions." The name Establiments comes from the word for "establishments" or possessions in Mallorquin, a dialect of Catalan.

The first possessió parcelled was Son Gual which is now Establiments Vells, named El Rutló. The refuge d'es Rutló was documented for the first time in 1584, with 14 parcels. In the 12th century began the parceling of d'es Muntant from the "possessió" de Sarrià, which eventually came to be known as Establiments Nous. In 1685 the vells had 69 parcels & the nous had 33.

For several centuries Establiments was part of Esporles, but after a time, an independent municipality was formed. In the Cardenal Despuig map of 1785 the large "possessions" of Es Canyar, Son Cotoneret, Son Gual, Bunyolí (documented around 1402), Sarrià, Son Morlà, Son Mallol i Son Berga appear, most being the property of families of nobility. In 1776 Son Berga Nou was built. Considered one of the most beautiful Majorquin "possessions" it was the property of Safortesa family. In 1837, Establiments was separated from Esporles and became independent municipality. In 1847, it had a population of 1460. There were 367 houses in an area of 22.55 km2 (8.707 mi²). Throughout the 19th century the municipality's principal occupation was farming, and the principle crops were wheat, barley, almonds, olive oil, carob beans and legumes. During the 1870s, the principal "possessiones" were Sarrià (426 ha), Bunyolí (376 ha), Son Gual (195 ha), Son Morlà (95 ha), & Es Canyar (84 ha).

In the first of 20th century three tissue factories, a shoe factory, and a mosaics factory were established.

In 1910, Establiments was annexed by Palma de Mallorca and officially gained the category of neighborhood. Many of its original features preserved, similar to the neighborhood of Son Espanyol. It is likely that the reason for its annexation was a combination of economical troubles and political squabbling between liberal & conservatives in the area.

In 1926, Establiments obtained an electric tram line whose trolley cars departed from Sant Miquel Sreet. This tram served until 1959 when it was replaced by a bus line. In 1933 Joan Colom's cement factory started the quarries exploitation which caused a lot of problems. During the Spanish Civil War prominent figures such as the administrator of Socialist Youngsters Antoni Roca Lladó, and the esporlerist socialist and Establiments resident, Gabriel Calafell Serra, were imprisoned and executed. This caused some residents to seek refuge.

A tourist boom in the 1950s decreased agriculture and many factories closed. Also, an important collective of immigrants from the Peninsula arrived, which the native people called strangers (forasters in Catalan).

Boundaries

The district borders the municipalities of Esporles and Puigpuñent to the north and west, respectively. It borders the districts of Son Anglada and Secar de la Real to the south and the suburb of Son Espanyol to the east.

Coat of Arms

The Coat of arms is a visual of a blue arm holding a sword painted on a red background.

References

Establiments Wikipedia


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