An **energy factor** is a metric used in the United States to compare the energy conversion efficiency of residential appliances and equipment. The energy factor is currently used for rating the efficiency of water heaters, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The term is used by the United States Department of Energy to develop and enforce minimum energy conservation standards under the Energy Conservation Program.

The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the appliance should be.

Although the term energy factor is used to compare the relative efficiency of these appliances, the metric is defined differently for all four appliance categories. The energy factor is expressed in terms of site energy, which excludes losses through energy conversion. All of these efficiency metrics are defined by Department of Energy test procedures.

The energy factor metric only applies to residential water heaters, which are currently defined by fuel, type, and input capacity.

The energy factor for residential water heaters is determined using the results from the 24-hour simulated use test. During the test 64.3±1.0 gallons of water are drawn from the water heater in six equally spaced draws that begin one hour apart. The hot water flow rate for each draw is 3.0±0.25 gallons per minute. After the beginning of the last draw a standby period of 18 hours follows. During the test, the test conditions must be operated at a specified value and accuracy. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have different values specified for ambient air temperature and relative humidity.

From the standard test procedure, the energy factor is defined as

E
F
=
∑
i
=
1
6
M
i
C
p
i
(
135
∘
F
−
58
∘
F
)
Q
d
m
,
where
Q
d
m
is the modified daily water heating energy consumption (Btu),
M
i
is the mass withdrawn from the *i*^{th} draw (lb), and
C
p
i
is the specific heat of the water of the *i*^{th} draw Btu/lb°F.

Minimum federal energy conservation standards are defined by fuel, type, and rated storage volume. All standards are calculated as a function of the rated storage volume *V* in gallons. The current conservation standards are less efficient than the standards that go into effect in 2015.

The energy factor for dishwashers is defined as "the number of cycles per kWh of input power."

The energy factor for clothes washers, is defined as "the cubic foot capacity per kWh of input power per cycle."

The energy factor for clothes dryers is defined as "the number of pounds of clothes dried per kWh of power consumed."