Inciarte signed as an international free agent with the Diamondbacks on May 25, 2008, and began his career in the Rookie-class affiliates in 2008 and 2009. He has played in Arizona's minor league affiliates since the 2008 season, including the Yakima Bears in 2010. He hit .307 with two home runs, 47 runs batted in, and 28 stolen bases in Class-A for the South Bend Silver Hawks as well as Class-A Advanced for the Visalia Rawhide.
The Philadelphia Phillies selected Inciarte from the Diamondbacks with the 15th pick in the 2012 Rule 5 draft. He competed for a spot with the Phillies as a backup outfielder during spring training, and ultimately made their 2013 Opening Day roster. He remained with the Phillies for only one game (in which he did not appear), however, as he was designated for assignment following the team's acquisition of Ezequiel Carrera on April 2. The Diamondbacks reclaimed Inciarte from the Phillies on April 4, and assigned him to the Mobile BayBears of the Class AA Southern League. With Mobile, Inciarte had a .281 batting average, five home runs, 17 doubles, 25 runs batted in, and 43 stolen bases. He appeared in the Southern League All-Star Game. After the season, the Diamondbacks added Inciarte to their 40-man roster.
Inciarte began the 2014 season with the Reno Aces of the Class AAA Pacific Coast League. He batted .312 with two home runs and seven stolen bases in 109 at-bats before he was promoted to the major leagues. He made his major league debut on May 2, 2014, and recorded a hit in his first major league game. He hit his first major league home run on July 5 off of Aaron Harang of the Atlanta Braves. Inciarte batted .303 with 21 stolen bases for the Diamondbacks in 2015. After the 2015 season, Inciarte won the Fielding Bible Award for players who played multiple positions.
On December 9, 2015, the Diamondbacks traded Inciarte, Dansby Swanson, and Aaron Blair to the Braves for Shelby Miller, and Gabe Speier. Inciarte started for the Braves as their center fielder and leadoff hitter on Opening Day. The Braves placed Inciarte on the disabled list on April 11. He was reactivated on May 6. The time he missed negatively impacted Inciarte's offensive production, as he recorded a .227 batting average in the first half of the season. After the All-Star break, Inciarte's hitting improved. He finished the year with a .291 batting average, coupled with three career-best marks, a .351 on-base percentage, 85 runs scored and seven triples. In 131 games, Inciarte also stole 16 bases. Though he finished behind Billy Hamilton in defensive Wins Above Replacement (as tabulated by Fangraphs), Ultimate Zone Rating, and Defensive Runs Saved, Inciarte won the 2016 National League Gold Glove for center fielders due to his superior arm strength and accuracy. On December 23, 2016, the Atlanta Braves announced that Inciarte had been signed to a five year extension worth approximately $30 million.
On April 14, 2017, Inciarte recorded the first defensive out, first hit, and first home run at the Braves' new venue, SunTrust Park. The Braves won 5-2 over the San Diego Padres.
On May 22, 2017, Inciarte recorded his first career five hit game against the Pittsburgh Pirates in a 5-2 Braves victory.
On June 4, 2017, Inciarte recorded his second 5 hit performance, as well as his first 5 RBI game in a 13-8 win against the Cincinnati Reds.
On July 2, 2017 against the Oakland Athletics, Inciarte recorded a 3 hit preference including a RBI, and made a game saving catch in a 4-3 win. On the same day, Inciarte was named an All Star for the first time in his career.
In the 2017 Major League Baseball All Star Game, Inciarte was the lone brave representative, going 0-2 in the game.
On August 30, 2017 against the Philadelphia Phillies, Inciarte recorded his third five hit game of the season, as well as the second four RBI game of the season.
Inciarte's father, Astolfo, played baseball in Venezuela. His brother, also named Astolfo, played in the minor leagues for the Diamondbacks organization, until their father died and he returned home to take over the family business. He is also a Real Madrid football club supporter.