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Eleutheria

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The Greek word "ἐλευθερία" (capitalized Ἐλευθερία; Attic Greek pronunciation: [eleu̯tʰer'ia]), transliterated as eleutheria, is an Ancient Greek term for, and personification of, liberty. Eleutheria personified had a brief career on coins of Alexandria.

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In Ancient Greece, Eleutheria was also an epithet for the goddess Artemis, and as such she was worshipped in Myra of Lycia.

Etymology

For R. F. Willets, Cretan dialect 'Eleuthia' would connect Eileithyia (or perhaps the goddess "Eleutheria") to Eleusis. This Cretan dialect is also similar in name to an ancient city in Crete named Eleutherna

In Roman mythology, Demeter (Ceres) has a daughter named Libera ("Liberty/Freedom").

Modern interpretations

I. F. Stone, who taught himself Greek in his old age, wrote a book, The Trial of Socrates, pointing out that Socrates and Plato do not value eleutheria, freedom; instead were Sparta-lovers, wanting a monarch, an oligarchy, instead of a democracy, a republic.

The French philosopher Michel Foucault, in lectures given at Berkeley and Boulder, made the same argument for Socrates' failure to invoke parrhesia, freedom of speech, the obligation to speak the truth for the common good at personal risk, in his own defense at his trial, preferring to die in obedience to law as above men. Athenians held that they democratically shaped law, seeing Socrates' stance as treason.

References

Eleutheria Wikipedia