| Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, National Mining University of Ukraine, Dniepropetrovsk State Medical Academy, Dnipropetrovsk National University of Rail Transport, National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine|
Dnipropetrovsk (Ukrainian: ) or Dnepropetrovsk (Russian: ), originally Ekaterinoslav (Russian: , Ukrainian: , translit. Katerynoslav) is Ukraines fourth largest city, with about one million inhabitants. It is 242 miles (390 km) southeast of the capital Kiev on the Dnieper River, in the south-central part of Ukraine. Dnipropetrovsk is the administrative centre of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance, the centre of Dnipropetrovsk municipality and extraterritorial administrative centre of Dnipropetrovsk Raion. Population: 997,754?(2013 est.).
The Russian city of Ekaterinoslav, known by this name until 1925, was formally inaugurated by the Russian Empress Catherine the Great in 1787 as the administrative centre of the newly acquired vast territories of New Russia, including those ceded to Russia by the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca (1774). The city was originally envisioned as the Russian Empires 3rd capital city, after Moscow and Saint Petersburg. A vital industrial centre of Soviet Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk was one of the key centres of the nuclear, arms, and space industries of the Soviet Union. In particular, it is home to the Yuzhmash, a major space and ballistic missile design bureau and manufacturer. Because of its military industry, Dnipropetrovsk was a closed city until the 1990s. It is named in honor of Grigory Petrovsky.
Dnipropetrovsk is a powerhouse of Ukraines business and politics as the native city for many of the countrys most important figures. Ukraines politics is still defined by the legacy of Leonid Kuchma, Pavlo Lazarenko and Yuliya Tymoshenko whose intermingled careers started in Dnipropetrovsk.
The city is built mainly upon both banks of the Dnieper, at its confluence with the Samara River. In the loop of a major meander, the Dnieper changes its course from the north west to continue southerly and later south-westerly through Ukraine, ultimately passing Kherson, where it finally flows into the Black Sea.
Nowadays both the north and south banks play home to a range of industrial enterprises and manufacturing plants. The airport is located about 15 km (9.32 mi) south-east of the city.
The centre of the city is constructed on the right bank which is part of the Dnieper Upland, while the left bank is part of the Dnieper Lowland. The old town is situated atop a hill that is formed as a result of the rivers change of course to the south. The change of rivers direction is caused by its proximity to the Azov Upland located southeast of the city.
One of the citys streets, Prospekt Karla Marksa, links the two major architectural ensembles of the city and constitutes an important thoroughfare through the centre, which along with various suburban radial road systems, provides some of the areas most vital transport links for both suburban and inter-urban travel.
A monastery was founded by Byzantine monks on Monastyrsky Island, probably in the 9th century (870 AD). The Tatars destroyed the monastery in 1240.
At the beginning of the 15th century, Tatar tribes inhabiting the right bank of the Dnieper were driven away by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Unfortunately, by the mid-15th century, the Nogai (who lived north of the Sea of Azov) and the Crimean Khanate invaded these lands. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate agreed to a border along the Dnieper, and farther east along the Samara River, i.e. through what is today the city of Dnipropetrovsk. It was in this time that there appeared a new force – the free people – Cossacks. They later became known as Zaporozhian Cossacks (Zaporizhia – the lands south of Prydniprovye, translate as "The Land Beyond the Weirs [Rapids]"). This was a period of raids and fighting causing considerable devastation and depopulation in that area; the area became known as the Wilderness (Russian ????? ????) (Ukrainian ???? ????).
The city has a variety of theatres (plus an Opera) and museums of interest to tourists. There are also several parks, restaurants and beaches.
The major streets of the city were renamed in honour of Marxist heroes during the Soviet era. The central thoroughfare is known as Karla Marksa Prospekt, a, wide and long boulevard that stretches east to west through the centre of the city. It was founded in the 18th century and parts of its buildings are the actual decoration of the city. In the heart of the city is Zhovtneva [October] Square, which includes the majestic cathedral founded by order of Catherine the Great in 1787.
On the square, there are some remarkable buildings: the Museum of History, Diorama "Battle for the Dnieper River (World War II)", and also the park in which one can rest in the hot summer. Walking down the hill to the Dnieper River, one arrives in the large Taras Shevchenko Park (which is on the right bank of the river) and on Monastyrsky Island. This island is one of the most interesting places in the city. In the 9th century, the Byzantine monks based a monastery here.
A few areas retain their historical character: all of Central Avenue, some street-blocks on the main hill (the Nagorna part) between Pushkin Prospekt and Embankment, and sections near Globa (formerly known as Chkalov park until it was recently renamed) and Shevchenko parks have been untouched for 150 years.
The Dnieper River keeps the climate mild. It is visible from many points in Dnipropetrovsk. From any of the three hills in the city, one can see a view of the river, islands, parks, outskirts, river banks and other hills.
There was no need to build skyscrapers in the city in Soviet times. The major industries preferred to locate their offices close to their factories and away from the centre of town. Most new office buildings are built in the same architectural style as the old buildings. A number, however, display more modern aesthetics, and some blend the two styles.