The town's name "Dhemaji' is believed to be derived from Mising words "Dhe" meaning"fly" and "maji" meaning "creeping".
Dhemaji is located at 27.48°N 94.58°E / 27.48; 94.58. It has an average elevation of 91 metres (298 feet). Dhemaji is located to the north of the river brahmaputra. To its north lies the Arunachal himalayas. To its east is the state, Arunachal Pradesh and to the west is lakhimpur, a district of Assam. It has many big and small rivers flowing through it. Some of them are Jiadhal, Gainodi, and Cemen. The river Subansiri flows by its western border.
The area of the present district was under the control of the Sutiya kings during their reign of over 400 years. Ruins of the erstwhile capital are still there but not well preserved. A number of monuments Ghuguha Dol, Ma Manipuri Than, Padumani Than built by the Ahom kings are worth visiting.
Dhemaji became a fully-fledged district on 14 October 1989 when it was split from Lakhimpur district.
As of 2001 India census, Dhemaji had a population of 11,851. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Dhemaji has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80% and, female literacy is 70%. In Dhemaji, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.
In 2006 the Indian government named Dhemaji one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the eleven districts in Assam currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). During the last 10 years Dhemaji has been witnessing rapid growth in terms of business and education. The economy of Dhemaji is based on agriculture. In the recent decade a growth in the nursery business has been seen in the region under leadership of Mr.Tankeswar Doloi, who has collected more than 100 varieties of orchids and Mr. Ajit Dutta of Asok Nursery who have created work culture through their own individual enterprises in the region. The prominent employment avenue apart from agriculture is the service sector (govt. jobs, school teachers). Central govt. schemes for rural development is changing the scene of the district. People now have different options to enrich themselves. The DRDA, Zilla Parishad, Gram Panchayat are flourishing income opportunities to the people as well as the office-bearers of these organizations.
The National Highway No. 52 passes through Dhemaji end at Jonai. In Railway the town is served by the Dhemaji railway station of Rangiya railway division. The broad-gauge train service has been successfully completed.
Jiadhal and Gainadi are the most ravaging rivers in this district in terms of floods. Every year floods destroy a bulk of the agricultural proceeds and people take refuge in camps.
The nearest airport to Dhemaji is Lilabari Airport, near North Lakhimpur, some 66 km away.
A Bogibeel Bridge over the Brahmaputra is under construction that will connect Dhemaji with Dibrugarh by road as well as by rail. The state-highways here are comparatively well-off compared to its neighboring district.
Dhemaji has a dozen of schools and colleges. Dhemaji is continuously making record over last four years by securing Highest passing percentage in HSLC exam. Currently Dhemaji has the highest Educated people in Assam (districtwise). The oldest recorded among them is a primary school established in 1885 named Nalanipam L.P. School. The school is to be declared "Model School" by the SSA Mission, Assam. Dhemaji Higher Secondary School and Dhemaji Girls Higher Secondary School are pioneer educational schools at Dhemaji which produces a good number of talents at national and international level. St Francis de Sales School (a Christian missionary managed school) is a pioneer school providing education in English medium in the district. This school produces a good number of rank holders in High School Leaving Certificate Examination. Along with this other Missionary school in the district were Christ King school at Gogamukh, Don Bosco at Silapathar, Fransalian school at Jonai. Dhemaji College, Dhemaji Commerce College, Moridhal College are major colleges. Gogamukh College at Gogamukh, Silapathar College at Silapathar, Sissiborgaon College at Sissiborgaon, Murkongselek College at Jonai, Laimekuri college at Jonai, Bordoloni Central college are other colleges. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Dhemaji, Vivekananda Kendra Vidyalaya Dhemaji, Kendriya Vidyalaya Gerukamukh, were some of CBSE affiliated school with a very good growth of result in past years. VKV, Dhemaji is one of the benchmark and mark holing school in Dhemaji and a very recommended school for all. Its vision is to get knowledge in every aspects of life. A good number of students are coming out from the roots of Dhemaji to join different institutes and organizations of international and national repute. An Engineering college and a Polytechnic Institute is scheduled to be established Shortly. Education in remote villages have been mostly contributed by lots of Provincialised /Non-provincialized Venture Schools using volunteer teachers. A campus of Tezpur University has been planned to open a modest campus in Laimekuri, Jonai Sub-division.
Dhemaji is part of Lakhimpur (Lok Sabha constituency). There are two Assembly constituencies in Dhemaji District- Dhemaji and Jonai. Dhemaji district is politically very poor. Community politics is main reason for this. Sarbananda Sonowal of Bharatiya Janata Party was Member of Parliament until May 2016 when he became Chief Minister of Assam. Pradan Baruah of Bharatiya Janata Party is the present Member of Parliament of Lakhimpur Lok Sabha Constituency, Bhubon Pegu an independent M.L.A of Jonai.
Students' organisations such as Takam Mising Porin Kebang, All Assam Students Union, Asom Jatiyatabadi Yuva Chatra Parishad, All Bodo Students Union, National Students' Union of India, All Tai Ahom Students Union, All Assam Students Union are very popular through their activities.
With wide strengthening of Economy among both rural and urban people. Lot of new banks both Nationalised Bank i.e. Public sector banks in India and Private-sector bank had opened there branches in the various rural and urban areas of the district.State Bank of India
Central Bank of India
United Bank of India
Assam Gramin Vikash Bank
With increasing popularity of Mobile service and internet connectivity. Internet connectivity through wireless datacards and Broadband is available. The major cellular service providers are Airtel, BSNL, Aircel, Vodafone, Reliance, Idea
4G services are a recent addition to the city. 3G services provided by Airtel, BSNL, Aircel, Vodafone