The Demographics of Rawalpindi District, a district of Punjab in Pakistan, has undergone significant changes over the years. It has been affected by turmoil in the surrounding districts.
According to the 1998 census the population of the district was 3,363,911 of which 53.03% were urban, making Rawalpindi the second most urbanised district in Punjab. By 1998 the population was estimated to be 4.41 million - a rise of over a million.
The 1901 census was carried out during the period of British rule, the population of the district in 1901 was 558,699, the area of the district at the time was 558,699 square miles
The main tribes of Rawalpindi District at that time were the Chauhan, Awan, Dhund Abbasi, Dhanyal, Gakhars, Gujjars, Jasgam, Jats, Kashmiris, Khattar, Paracha, Rajputs, Punjabis, Punjabi-Pathans, Pathans, Mashhadi Jews and Sayyid.
According to the census of 1901, the population of the main tribes were: Awan (38,768), Dhund Abbasis (23,462), Gakhars(13,328), Gujjars (25,953)Janjua Rajputs(7,557), Jats (34,556), Khattar(1,014). Miscellaneous Dhanyal(3,991), Satti (5,343) and Sayyid(12,508).
According to the 1901 Indian census Muslims numbered around 466,918, around than 83% of the total population, while Hindus and Sikhs numbered 57,325 and 26,363 respectively.
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Rawalpindi District. Kashmir and other areas arrived in Rawalpindi. While it is accepted that population of urban Rawalpindi has been transformed since independence, the rural population in the Kahuta, Kallar Syedan, Kotli Sattian, Gujar Khan and Murree Tehsils still comprise overwhelmingly of the tribes referred to in 1901 census.