Daulatram Saran was educated at the government high school in Sardarshahar. He joined the Indian independence movement in response to the efforts of Mahatma Gandhi.
1945-48: He was connected with "Bikaner Rajya Praja Parishad" as a member of Pratinidhi Sabha. He took part in the formation of popular government in the princely state of Bikaner. He played an important role in the awakening of farmers of princely state Bikaner and united them against the exploitation by Jagirdars.
He always had problems of farmers in his mind and struggled for them, due to which he was very popular among the farmers of the region.
1948-50: He was general secretary of Churu district Congress Committee.
1950-57: He was president of Churu District Congress Committee.
1957-66: He was minister in charge of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Co-operatives, Panchayat Raj, and Local bodies, Irrigation etc. departments in the Government of Rajasthan. He won continuous three assembly elections from Dongargarh constituency in Churu district. He won 1957 and 1962 Rajasthan Legislative Assembly elections as congress candidate and 1967 assembly election as an independent candidate.
1966: On 25 January 1966 he resigned from the cabinet along with Chaudhari Kumbharam Arya, Harish Chandra Jhalawar, Bhimsingh Mandawa and Kamala Beniwal due to strong ideological differences with then Chief Minister Mohanlal Sukharia and founded Rajasthan Janata Party of which he was general secretary.
1967-72: He was member of Rajasthan Assembly as an independent candidate. In 1968 he merged Rajasthan Janata Party with Bharatiy Kranti Dal formed by Choudhary Charan Singh of which he became state president.
1975: On 27 June 1975 he was arrested during Indian Emergency (1975-1977) and was imprisoned under MISA .
1977-79: He was Member of Parliament from Churu in 6th Lok Sabha from newly formed Janata Party.
1980-84: He was Member of Parliament from Churu in 7th Lok Sabha from Janata Party (S).
1989-91: He was Member of Parliament from Churu in 9th Lok Sabha from Janata Dal. He was president of Rajasthan Janata Dal parliamentary board. He was central minister in Chandra Shekhar government in charge of urban development department.
Daulatram Saran was associated with Gramotthan Vidyapith Sangaria, founded by Swami Keshwanand, and with the Girls' School Mahajan. He also founded Gandhi Vidya Mandir Sardarshahar. Believing that the cause of social evils is lack of literacy, he tried to encourage education through the opening of village schools, libraries and adult education centres.
Daulatram Saran was the founder chairman of Rajasthan Kisan Union from 1974. He led the movements of farmers against levy. He united farmers through organizing mass rallies of farmers in Jaipur. He also organised rallies under the banner of Kisan Unions at District and Tehsil levels.
Saran took up number of reformist actions. He was against child marriage and the bonded labour system. He opposed the Mratyubhauj and extravaganza on deaths, advocated tree plantation programmes in villages of the Thar Desert region to mitigate the effects of extreme temperatures and shifting sand dunes.