Bruce was born in Chicago, Illinois and grew up in Schenectady, New York. He attended Linton High School and graduated from Notre Dame-Bishop Gibbons High School of Schenectady in 1993. After attending Iona College for a year, Bruce transferred to Indiana University Bloomington and graduated with a degree in broadcasting in 1997.
Bruce was a producer with KNBR 680 of San Francisco before leaving in 2000 to be a host on Sports Overnight America. Bruce later became an anchor-reporter for ESPN Radio and ESPN International. Later, he was a fill-in host on Fox Sports Radio and Sporting News Radio. Until December 2004, Bruce co-hosted afternoon drive-time show The Big Show with Kirk Herbstreit on Columbus, Ohio sports station 1460 the Fan. In March 2005, Bruce became morning announcer at news/talk station WOWO of Fort Wayne, Indiana before rejoining KNBR as host of evening show Sportsphone 680 in October 2005.
After leaving SportsPhone 680, Bruce began hosting the noon-3 p.m. The Damon Bruce Show on sister station KTCT "KNBR 1050" on March 1, 2010. For a few weeks in 2011, Bruce returned to KNBR 680 to co-host the 9 a.m. to noon show with Gary Radnich. after a month Bruce returned to his show on 1050 and former SportsPhone680 host Larry Krueger began co-hosting with Gary. On the Damon Bruce show, Bruce comments on Bay Area and national sports and interviews journalists, athletes, and coaches.
During the San Francisco Giants's championship season in 2012, the team revoked Bruce's press credentials for the postseason. The Giants were unhappy that Bruce had tweeted revealing photos he had taken of women in T-shirts wet from champagne during a clubhouse celebration after they clinched their division.
In November 2013, Bruce delivered an eight-minute rant accusing the increased prevalence of women in sports journalism and discussion for, among other things, fostering public criticism of accused Miami Dolphins football player Richie Incognito, who was accused of bullying teammate Jonathan Martin. Beginning by acknowledging his words would be seen as misogynist, but that he was "so right," Bruce stated that "there are very few, a small handful, of women who are any good at this at all," and proclaimed "you see, I'm willing to share my sandbox as long as you're willing to remember: You're in my box." His comments generated a storm of media controversy and public outcry, culminating in his temporary suspension from KNBR 1050's "The Damon Bruce Show," and being stripped of his job broadcasting during San Francisco 49ers pre-game shows.
Bruce's last show on KTCT was on March 10, 2014. The following day, competing station KGMZ "95.7 the Game" announced that Bruce would become the 3-7 p.m. host effective March 31.
Bruce joined the CBS Sports Radio network in 2013 as host of a weekly baseball talk show that premiered on April 20, Eye on Baseball. The show aired on Saturdays from 10 a.m. to noon (Eastern). Following from noon to 2 p.m. was a national version of The Damon Bruce Show. These shows ended in August 2013, and in January 2014, Bruce returned to CBS Sports Radio in the Saturday 10 p.m. to 2 a.m. (Eastern) time slot. Bruce left CBS Sports Radio after leaving KTCT, a CBS Sports Radio affiliate.
Damon is the halftime host of 2K Sports' video game NBA 2K11, NBA 2K12, NBA 2K13 and NBA 2K14.
Bruce is also the play-by-play voice for the video game, The Bigs, released in June 2007 by 2K Sports.
The Bigs 2 was released on July 7, 2009. Bruce returns as the play by play announcer.