Suvarna Garge (Editor)

Cryptography standards

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There are a number of standards related to cryptography. Standard algorithms and protocols provide a focus for study; standards for popular applications attract a large amount of cryptanalysis.


Encryption standards

  • Data Encryption Standard (DES, now obsolete)
  • Triple-DES
  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
  • RSA the original public key algorithm
  • OpenPGP
  • Hash standards

  • MD5 128-bit (obsolescent)
  • SHA-1 160-bit
  • SHA-2 available in 224, 256, 384,616,680 and 512-bit variants
  • HMAC keyed hash
  • PBKDF2 Key derivation function (RFC 2898)
  • Digital signature standards

  • Digital Signature Standard (DSS), based on the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)
  • RSA
  • Elliptic Curve DSA
  • Public-key infrastructure (PKI) standards

  • X.509 Public Key Certificates
  • Wireless Standards

  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), severely flawed and superseded by WPA
  • Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) better than WEP, a 'pre-standard' partial version of 802.11i
  • 802.11i a.k.a. WPA2, uses AES and other improvements on WEP
  • A5/1 and A5/2 cell phone encryption for GSM
  • U.S. Government Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)

  • FIPS PUB 31 Guidelines for Automatic Data Processing Physical Security and Risk Management 1974
  • FIPS PUB 46-3 Data Encryption Standard (DES) 1999
  • FIPS PUB 73 Guidelines for Security of Computer Applications 1980
  • FIPS PUB 74 Guidelines for Implementing and Using the NBS Data Encryption Standard 1981
  • FIPS PUB 81 DES Modes of Operation 1980
  • FIPS PUB 102 Guideline for Computer Security Certification and Accreditation 1983
  • FIPS PUB 112 Password Usage 1985, defines 10 factors to be considered in access control systems that are based on passwords
  • FIPS PUB 113 Computer Data Authentication 1985, specifies a Data Authentication Algorithm (DAA) based on DES, adopted by the Department of Treasury and the banking community to protect electronic fund transfers.
  • FIPS PUB 140-2 Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules 2001, defines four increasing security levels
  • FIPS PUB 171 Key Management Using ANSI X9.17 (ANSI X9.17-1985) 1992, based on DES
  • FIPS PUB 180-2 Secure Hash Standard (SHS) 2002 defines the SHA family
  • FIPS PUB 181 Automated Password Generator (APG) 1993
  • FIPS PUB 185 Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES) 1994, a key escrow system that provides for decryption of telecommunications when lawfully authorized.
  • FIPS PUB 186-2 Digital Signature Standard (DSS) 2000
  • FIPS PUB 190 Guideline for the Use of Advanced Authentication Technology Alternatives 1994
  • FIPS PUB 191 Guideline for the Analysis of local area network Security 1994
  • FIPS PUB 196 Entity Authentication Using Public Key Cryptography 1997
  • FIPS PUB 197 Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 2001
  • FIPS PUB 198 The Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) 2002
  • Classified Standards

  • EKMS NSA's Electronic Key Management System
  • FNBDT NSA's secure narrow band voice standard
  • Fortezza encryption based on portable crypto token in PC Card format
  • STE secure telephone
  • STU-III older secure telephone
  • TEMPEST prevents compromising emanations
  • Other

  • IPsec Virtual Private Network (VPN) and more
  • IEEE P1363 covers most aspects of public-key cryptography
  • Transport Layer Security (formerly SSL)
  • SSH secure Telnet and more
  • Content Scrambling System (CSS, the DVD encryption standard, broken by DeCSS)
  • Kerberos authentication standard
  • RADIUS authentication standard
  • ANSI X9.59 electronic payment standard
  • Common Criteria Trusted operating system standard
  • CRYPTREC Japanese Government's cryptography recommendations
  • References

    Cryptography standards Wikipedia

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