Girish Mahajan (Editor)


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Kingdom  Animalia
Subphylum  Tunicata
Suborder  Phlebobranchia
Scientific name  Ciona
Rank  Genus
Phylum  Chordata
Order  Enterogona
Family  Cionidae
Higher classification  Cionidae
Ciona wwwpnwscubacominvasivesphotosciona4jpg
Similar  Ciona intestinalis, Ascidians, Tunicate, Ciona savignyi, Chordate


Ciona is a genus of sea squirts in the family Cionidae.


The body of Ciona is bag-like and covered by a tunic, which is a secretion of the epidermal cells. The body is attached at a permanent base located at the posterior part, and the opposite bears two openings, the buccal (oral) and atrial (cloacal) siphons. The water is drawn into the ascidian through the buccal siphon and leaves the atrium through the atrial siphon.

Ciona NEMESIS Database Species Summary

Sea vase tunicate ciona intestinalis

Genome projects

As of 2008, the genomes of Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi have been sequenced.

Sexual reproduction

Ciona MarLIN The Marine Life Information Network A sea squirt Ciona

C. intestinalis is a hermaphrodite that releases sperm and eggs almost simultaneously into the surrounding seawater. C. intestinalis is self-sterile and thus has been used for studies on the mechanism of self-incompatibility. C. savigny is highly self-fertile, but non-self sperm out-compete self-sperm in fertilization competition assays. Mechanisms promoting non-self fertilization may have evolved to avoid inbreeding depression, and to facilitate outcrossing which allows the masking of deleterious recessive mutations.

Ciona MarLIN The Marine Life Information Network A sea squirt Ciona
Ciona NEMESIS Database Species Summary
Ciona Ciona Wikipedia
Ciona Di Gregorio Lab


Ciona Wikipedia