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Carassius

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Kingdom  Animalia
Family  Cyprinidae
Scientific name  Carassius
Phylum  Chordata
Order  Cypriniformes
Subfamily  Cyprininae
Higher classification  Cyprinidae
Rank  Genus
Carassius Carassius Wikipedia
Lower classifications  Goldfish, Japanese crucian carp, Crucian carp, Prussian carp
Similar  Common carp, Carp, Perch, Trout, Funazushi

Crucian carassius carassius underwater uk


Carassius is a genus in the ray-finned fish family Cyprinidae. Many species in this genus are commonly known as crucian carps, though this term often specifically refers to C. carassius. The most well known is the goldfish (C. auratus), which was bred from the Prussian carp (C. gibelio). They have a Eurasian distribution, apparently originating further to the west than the typical carps (Cyprinus), which include the common carp (C. carpio).

Contents

Carassius goldfish Carassius auratus

Species of Carassius are not particularly close relatives of the typical carps of Cyprinus, but rather form a more basal lineage of the subfamily Cyprininae.

Carassius Carassius auratus Linnaeus 1758

Male little bittern swallowing a big carassius fish


Species

Carassius Carassius auratus
  • Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Carassius auratus argenteaphthalmus V. H. Nguyễn, 2001
  • Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) (goldfish) ........................ Chinese: 鯽/鲫/金魚; pinyin: ; Wade–Giles: chi4; Ja: Hibuna (ヒブナ)
  • Carassius auratus buergeri Temminck & Schlegel, 1846..........................Ja: ōkin-buna (オオキンブナ) (MOE)
  • Carassius auratus grandoculis Temminck & Schlegel, 1846.....................Ja: nigoro-buna (ニゴロブナ) (MOE)
  • Carassius auratus langsdorfii Temminck & Schlegel, 1846....... ...............Ja: gin-buna (ギンブナ) (MOE)
  • Carassius auratus ssp.1 Regional Red List.....................................Ja: naga-buna (ナガブナ) (MOE)
  • Carassius auratus ssp.2 Regional Red List.....................................Ja: kin-buna (キンブナ) (MOE)
  • Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (crucian carp).................................. Chinese: 黑鯽/黑鲫; pinyin: hēijì; Wade–Giles: hei 1 chi4; Ja: Europa-buna (ヨーロッパブナ)
  • Carassius cuvieri Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 (Japanese crucian carp)
  • wild species endemic to Lake Biwa ................................................. Ja: gengorō-buna (ゲンゴロウブナ)
  • cultivated taller body depth type ...................................................... Ja: hera-buna (ヘラブナ)
  • Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) (Prussian carp) Ja: Giberio-buna (ギベリオブナ)

  • Carassius Goldfish Carassius Auratus In Aquarium Photograph by Konrad Wothe

    †Note that Fishbase listing of common names identification is not consistient with Japan's Regional Red List. Fishbase for C. a. auratus lists kinbuna, and for C. a. buergeri both naga-buna and okin-buna (ōkin-buna).

    Use

    For the use of the European species, see Crucian carp.

    Carassius gallerynanfaorgd237223CarassiusauratusGold

    The native Chinese Carassius subspecies called ji (鯽魚), C. auratus auratus), is a different species from the European, but for most practical purposes, it is classed as "crucian carp" in a typical Chniese-English dictionary, including wiktionary:鯽. For convenience, it will be denoted the "Chinese crucian".

    Carassius FileCarassius carassius1jpg Wikimedia Commons

    Although the Chinese crucian can be raised as pets, it is also farmed and commonly used in Chinese cuisine. Despite being reputedly bony, the fish is easy to raise and relatively cheap, so are often deep-fried as part of a worker's meal.

    Many extensive and luxurious preparations for this fish are used in Chinese cuisine. For example, it can be found in the Shanghainese dish congshao jiyu (蔥燒鯽魚, lit. scallion-cooked crucian carp), which requires long hours for preparation, since the fish needs to be soaked in vinegar, and then deep-fried, stewed for a long prolonged period, and cooled to make the fish tender enough to consume together with all its bones. Also, the Chinese crucian is used to make soup with tofu, which the Chinese believe to benefit women in the postpartum period.

    The several Japanese crucians are collectively called funa (ja:鮒). The generic fish can be used in a preparation called kanro-ni, stewed in syrupy, soy sauce-flavored liquid till they glisten, a preserved dish similar to tsukudani. The specialty dish funazushi specifically calls for the use one species, the nigoro-buna (C. a. grandoculis). Hence, it would be misleading to say that any crucian carp may be used for this delicacy. However, due to diminishing resources, ersatz funazushi is now being made using substitute types such as C. cuvieri. The deep-bodied forms of C. cuvieri, called hera-buna, shaped rather like flatfishes, are caught by rod and tackle for sport, but are not considered good eating.

    References

    Carassius Wikipedia


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