| Provence-Alpes-Cote dAzur|
David Lisnard UMP
| French Riviera, Promenade de la Croisette, Lerins Islands, Cannes Film Festival, Hotel Majestic Barriere|
Cannes ( in Occitan Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune of France located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, a busy tourist destination and host of the annual Cannes Film Festival, Midem, and Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity.
The city is famous for its luxury hotels and restaurants. On 3 November 2011 it played host to the G20 organisation of industrialised nations.
By the 2nd century BC the Ligurian Oxybii established a settlement here known as Aegitna . Historians are unsure what the name means. The area was a fishing village used as a port of call between the Lerins Islands.
In 69 AD it became the scene of violent conflict between the troops of Otho and Vitellius.
In the 10th century the town was known as Canua. The name may derive from "canna," a reed. Canua was probably the site of a small Ligurian port, and later a Roman outpost on Le Suquet hill, suggested by Roman tombs discovered here. Le Suquet housed an 11th-century tower which overlooked swamps where the city now stands. Most of the ancient activity, especially protection, was on the Lerins Islands and the history of Cannes is closely tied to the history of the islands.
An attack by the Saracens in 891, who remained until the end of the 10th century, devastated the country around Canua. The insecurity of the Lerins islands forced the monks to settle on the mainland, at the Suquet. Construction of a castle in 1035 fortified the city by then known as Cannes, and at the end of the 11th century construction was started on two towers on the Lerins islands. One took a century to build, the other, three centuries.
Around 1530 Cannes detached from the monks who had controlled the city for hundreds of years and became independent.
During the 18th century, both the Spanish and British tried to gain control of the Lerins Islands but were chased away by the French. The islands were later controlled by many, such as Jean-Honore Alziary, and the Bishop of Frejus. They had many different purposes: at the end of the 19th century, one served as hospital for soldiers wounded in the Crimean War.
Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux bought land at the Croix des Gardes and constructed the villa Eleonore-Louise. His work to improve living conditions attracted the English aristocracy, who also built winter residences.
At the end of the 19th century, several railways were completed, which prompted the arrival of streetcars. In Cannes, projects such as the Boulevard Carnot and the rue dAntibes were carried out. After the closure of the Casino des Fleurs (hotel Gallia), a luxury establishment was built for the rich winter clientele, the Casino Municipal next to the pier Albert-Edouard. This casino was demolished and replaced by the new Palace in 1979.
In the 20th century new luxury hotels such as the Carlton, Majestic, Martinez, and JW Marriott Cannes were built. The city was modernised with a sports centre, a post office, and schools. There were fewer British and German tourists after the First World War but more Americans. Winter tourism gave way to summer tourism and the summer casino at the Palm Beach was constructed.
The city council had the idea of starting an international film festival shortly before World War II. The first opened on 20 September 1946, held in the Casino Municipal.
The area around Cannes has developed into a high-tech cluster. The technopolis of Sophia Antipolis lies in the hills beyond Cannes. The Film Festival is a major event for the industry. There is an annual television festival in the last week in September.
The Promenade de la Croisette is the waterfront avenue with palm trees. La Croisette is known for picturesque beaches, restaurants, cafes and boutiques. Le Suquet, the old town, provides a good view of La Croisette. The fortified tower and Chapel of St Anne house the Musee de la Castre. A distinctive building in Cannes is the Russian Orthodox church.
The Musee dArt et dHistoire de Provence houses artifacts from prehistoric to present, in an 18th-century mansion. The Musee de la Castre has objects from the Pacific Atolls, Peruvian relics and Mayan pottery. Other venues include the Musee de la Marine, Musee de la Mer, Musee de la Photographie and Musee International de la Parfumerie.The Cannes Film Festival founded in 1946 is held annually, usually in May, at the Palais des Festivals et des Congres.The Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity is a global event and awards show for those working in advertising and related fields, held annually in June.Midem, the foremost trade show for the music industry.MIPIM, the worlds largest property-related trade show.Carnival on the Riviera is an annual parade through the streets to mark the 21-day period prior to Shrove Tuesday.The International Festival of Games is festival of bridge, belote, backgammon, chess, draughts, tarot and more (February).Cannes Yachting Festival is an event for boating enthusiasts in the Vieux Port (September).The International Actors’ Performance Festival: comedy sketches and performances by fringe artistsThe International Luxury Travel Market brings together under one roof the top international luxury travel providers and suppliers from all around the world.Le Festival d’Art Pyrotechnique is a magnificent annual fireworks competition held in the summer at the Bay of Cannes.Mipcom and MIPTV, held in October and April respectively, the worlds most important trade markets for the television industry.The Pan-African Film Festival, held in early April and featuring films from the African diaspora.
The cuisine of Provence is the result of the warm, dry Mediterranean climate; the rugged landscape, good for grazing sheep and goats but, outside of the Rhone Valley, with poor soil for large-scale agriculture; and the abundant seafood on the coast. The basic ingredients are olives and olive oil; garlic; sardines, rockfish, sea urchins and octopus; lamb and goat; chickpeas; local fruits, such as grapes, peaches, apricots, strawberries, cherries, and the famous melons of Cavaillon.
The fish frequently found on menus in Provence are the rouget, a small red fish usually eaten grilled, and the loup, (known elsewhere in France as the bar), often grilled with fennel over the wood of grapevines.Aioli is a thick emulsion sauce made from olive oil flavoured with crushed garlic. It often accompanies a bourride, a fish soup, or is served with potatoes and cod (fr. Morue). There are as many recipes as there are families in Provence.Bouillabaisse is the classic seafood dish of Marseille. The traditional version is made with three fish: scorpionfish, sea robin, and European conger, plus an assortment of other fish and shellfish, such as John Dory, monkfish, sea urchins, crabs and sea spiders included for flavour. The seasoning is as important as the fish, including salt, pepper, onion, tomato, saffron, fennel, sage, thyme, bay laurel, sometimes orange peel, and a cup of white wine or cognac. In Marseille the fish and the broth are served separately – the broth is served over thick slices of bread with rouille (see below.)Brandade de Morue is a thick cream made of cod crushed and mixed with olive oil, milk, garlic and sometimes truffles.Daube provencale is a stew made with cubed beef braised in wine, vegetables, garlic, and herbes de provence. Variations also call for olives, prunes, and flavouring with duck fat, vinegar, brandy, lavender, nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, juniper berries, or orange peel. For best flavour, it is cooked in several stages, and cooled for a day between each stage to allow the flavours to meld together. In the Camargue area of France, bulls killed in the bullfighting festivals are sometimes used for daube.Escabeche is another popular seafood dish; the fish (usually sardines) are either poached or fried after being marinated overnight in vinegar or citrus juice.Fougasse is the traditional bread of Provence, round and flat with holes cut out by the baker. Modern versions are baked with olives or nuts inside.Oursinade is the name of a sauce based on the coral of the sea urchin, and usually is used with fish, and also refers to a tasting of sea urchins.La pissaladiere is another speciality of Nice. Though it resembles a pizza, it is made with bread dough and the traditional variety never has a tomato topping. It is usually sold in bakeries, and is topped with a bed of onions, lightly browned, and a kind of paste, called pissalat, made from sardines and anchovies, and the small black olives of Nice, called caillettes.Ratatouille is a traditional dish of stewed vegetables, which originated in Nice.Rouille is a mayonnaise with red pimentos, often spread onto bread and added to fish soups.Socca is a speciality of Nice – it is a round flat cake made of chickpea flour and olive oil, like the Italian farinata. It is baked in the oven in a large pan more than a meter in diameter, then seasoned with pepper and eaten with the fingers while hot. In Toulon socca is known as La Cade.Soupe au pistou, either cold or hot, usually made with fresh basil ground and mixed with olive oil, along with summer vegetables, such as white beans, green beans, tomatoes, summer squash, and potatoes.Tapenade is a relish consisting of pureed or finely chopped olives, capers, and olive oil, usually spread onto bread and served as an hors dœuvre.The calisson is the traditional biscuit of Aix-en-Provence, made from a base of almond paste flavoured with confit of melon and orange. They have been made in Aix-en-Provence since the 17th century.The gateau des Rois is a type of epiphany cake found all over France; the Provencal version is different because it is made of brioche in a ring, flavoured with the essence of orange flowers and covered with sugar and fruit confit.The tarte Tropezienne is a tart of pastry cream (creme patissiere) invented by a St. Tropez pastry chef named Alexandre Micka in the 1950s, based on a recipe he brought from his native Poland. In 1955, he was chef on the set of the film And God Created Woman when actress Brigitte Bardot suggested he name the cake La Tropezienne. It is now found in bakeries throughout the Var.The Thirteen desserts is a Christmas tradition in Provence, when thirteen different dishes, representing Jesus and the twelve apostles, and each with a different significance, are served after the large Christmas meal.Herbes de Provence (or Provencal herbs) are a mixture of dried herbs from Provence which are commonly used in Provencal cooking.