Girish Mahajan (Editor)


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Kingdom  Animalia
Suborder  Caniformia
Scientific name  Caninae
Phylum  Chordata
Order  Carnivora
Family  Canidae
Lifespan  Red fox: 2 – 4 years
Caninae httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu

Subfamily  CaninaeG. Fischer de Waldheim, 1817
Height  Gray wolf: 80 – 85 cm, Coyote: 58 – 66 cm
Gestation period  Gray wolf: 62 – 75 days, Coyote: 60 – 63 days
Mass  Gray wolf: 30 – 80 kg, Coyote: 6.8 – 21 kg
Lower classifications  Gray wolf, Canis, Coyote, Dhole, Arctic fox

In the history of the carnivores, the family Canidae is represented by the two extinct subfamilies designated as Hesperocyoninae and Borophaginae, and the extant subfamily Caninae. This subfamily includes all living canids and their most recent fossil relatives. Their fossils have been found in Lower Oligocene North America, and they did not spread to Asia until the end of the Miocene, some 7 million to 8 million years ago. Many extinct species of Caninae were endemic to North America, living from 34 million to 11,000 years ago.



"Derived characteristics that distinguish the Caninae from other canids include small, simple, well-spaced premolars, a humerus without an entepicondylar foramen, and a metatarsal 1 which is reduced to a proximal rudiment."

Based on genetic assumptions, the present-day, more-basal canids include:

  • Genus Urocyon
  • Gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus
  • Island fox, Urocyon littoralis)
  • Genus Otocyon (probably a vulpine close to Urocyon)
  • Bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis
  • Genus Nyctereutes
  • Raccoon dog, N. procyonoides
  • Additional reading

  • Xiaoming Wang, Richard H. Tedford, Mauricio Antón, Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History, New York : Columbia University Press, 2008; ISBN 978-0-231-13528-3
  • References

    Caninae Wikipedia

    Similar TopicsArctic fox