Campos dos Goytacazes has an area of 4,032 km² (1,557 sq mi), which makes it the largest municipality in the state by area, and its elevation is 14 m. Its name comes from the geographical characteristic of the region, very flat with fields (campos in Portuguese) and from the Goytacazes Indians, which inhabited the region. Campos, as the city is usually known, is a macro region of the Northern Fluminense, and is a micro region of Campos dos Goytacazes. The city has a tropical climate.
The municipality contains part of the 21,444 hectares (52,990 acres) Desengano State Park, created in 1970.
The city's distance to Rio de Janeiro city, which is the capital of the state, is 286 kilometres (178 mi). BR-101 is the access highway of the city of Campos. Regular air services are operated from its airport Bartolomeu Lysandro. It is the easternmost municipality in Rio de Janeiro.
Colonization of the area started in the 16th century, and the village of São Salvador de Campos de Goytacazes was founded on May 29, 1677. On March 28, 1835 the village was promoted to city status.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Campos was the see of Bishop Antônio de Castro Mayer, nicknamed "The Lion of Campos", who was one of the bishops who opposed the Vatican II reforms and who teamed with Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre of Dakar to consecrate four independent bishops in Écône, Switzerland, in 1988. Nowadays there are in Campos two Roman Catholic jurisdictions: a Diocese, whose Bishop is Monsignor Roberto Gomes Guimarães and the Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney, whose Apostolic Administrator is Monsignor Fernando Areas Rifan.
City's economy is based on oil extraction. The GDP for the city was R$58,011,293. (2014).
The per capita income for the city was R$122,693 (2014).
Portuguese language is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense;
Universidade Cândido Mendes;
Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro;
Faculdade de Medicina de Campos;
Faculdade de Direito de Campos;
Faculdade de Odontologia Campos;
IF Fluminense (former CEFET Campos);
Universidade Federal Fluminense;
Universidade Salgado de Oliveira;
Universidade Estácio de Sá;
Faculdade Batista Fluminense;
The population of Campos is 471,737, up from the 436,008 in 2000, but down from the 1990s, 1980s, 1970s, 1960s and 1950s. The city in the 1950s was the second largest of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The reasons behind these reductions are the "crash" that the economy of the town, based on oil, suffered in 1954, something similar that happened in Detroit with the auto industries. According to the 2010 census, whites represent 70.4% of population, brown or mulatos 20% and black of African 7.1%. Other races represent 3.5% of the population.
There are at least three football clubs in the city: Americano, Campos, Goytacaz and Rio Branco. The derby between Americano and Goytacaz is known as Goyta-cano.