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Camille Chautemps

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Preceded by  Andre Tardieu
Name  Camille Chautemps
Succeeded by  Andre Tardieu
Political party  Radical
Party  Radical Party
Preceded by  Leon Blum
Parents  Emile Chautemps
Preceded by  Albert Sarraut
Role  French Politician

Camille Chautemps httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu
Died  July 1, 1963, Washington, D.C., United States

RADIO SPEECH BY FRENCH PREMIER - SOUND


Camille Chautemps (1 February 1885 – 1 July 1963) was a French Radical politician of the Third Republic, three times President of the Council (Prime Minister).

Contents

Early career

Described as "intellectually bereft", Chautemps nevertheless entered politics and became Mayor of Tours in 1912, and a Radical deputy in 1919. Between 1924 and 1926, he served in the centre-left coalition governments of Édouard Herriot, Paul Painlevé and Aristide Briand.

Initiated as a Freemason in 1906 in "les Demophines" lodge of Grand Orient of France, he became master in 1908, Worshipful Master of his lodge in 1910 and reached the 30th degree in Scottish Rite during 1924. He quitted Freemasonry in 1938 for political reasons.

Prime Minister twice

He became President of the Council briefly in 1930. Again in centre-left governments in 1932 to 1934, he served as Interior Minister and became Prime Minister again in November 1933. His government fell, and he resigned his posts on 27 January 1934 as a result of the corruption exposed by the Stavisky Affair, when the press accused him of having Stavisky murdered to silence him.

Deputy Prime Minister and Premier for the last time

In Léon Blum's Popular Front government of 1936, Chautemps was a Minister of State and then succeeded Blum at the head of the government from June 1937 to March 1938. The franc was devalued, but government finances remained in a mess. Pursuing the program of the Popular Front, he proceeded in the nationalisation of the railroads to create the SNCF. However, in January 1938, he drove the Socialists out of his government. In February, he granted married women financial and legal independence (until then, wives had been dependent on their husbands to take action involving family finances) and alloweed them to go to university and open bank accounts. His government also repealed Article 213 of the code: "the husband owes protection to his wife, the wife obedience to the husband" However, the husband remained "head of the household" with "the right to choose the household’s place of residence". His government fell on 10 March.

Run-up to World War II

Chautemps subsequently served from April 1938 to May 1940 as Deputy Premier in the governments of Édouard Daladier and Paul Reynaud, and, after the latter's resignation, as Deputy Premier again, now to Marshal Philippe Pétain.

World War II

France having declared war on Germany in September 1939, in May 1940, the German Army invaded and swept aside all opposition. With the fall of Dunkirk on 5 June and the defeat of the French army imminent, Chautemps, dining with Paul Baudouin on the 8th, declared that the war must be ended and that Pétain saw the position most clearly. On the 11th, during a Cabinet meeting, Chautemps suggested that Churchill be invited back to France to discuss the hopeless situation; he attended a conference at Tours on 13 June. The Cabinet met again on the 15th, almost evenly split on the question of an Armistice with Germany. Chautemps now suggested that to break the deadlock, that they should get a neutral authority to enquire what the German terms would be. If honourable, they could agree to study them. If not, they could all agree to fight on. The Chautemps proposal passed by 13 to 6.

On 16 June Charles de Gaulle, now in London, telephoned Reynaud to give him the British Government's offer of joint nationality for French and British in a Franco-British union. A delighted Reynaud put it to a stormy cabinet meeting and was supported by five of his ministers. Most of the others were persuaded against him by the arguments of Pétain, Chautemps and Jean Ybarnégaray, the latter two seeing the offer as a device to make France subservient to Great Britain, as an extra dominion. Georges Mandel (who had a Jewish background) was flinging accusations of cowardice around the room, and Chautemps and others replied in kind. It was now clear that Reynaud would not accept the Chautemps proposal, and Reynaud resigned.

Defection

Chautemps broke with Pétain's government after arriving in the United States on an official mission and lived there for much of the rest of his life. After World War II, a French court convicted him in absentia for collaborating with the enemy).

Chautemps's First Ministry, 21 February – 2 March 1930

  • Camille Chautemps (Radical) – President of the Council and Minister of the Interior
  • Aristide Briand (PRS) – Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • René Besnard (Radical) – Minister of War
  • Charles Dumont (AD) – Minister of Finance
  • Maurice Palmade (Radical) – Minister of Budget
  • Louis Loucheur (RI) – Minister of Labour, Hygiene, Welfare Work, and Social Security Provisions
  • Théodore Steeg (Radical) – Minister of Justice
  • Albert Sarraut (Radical) – Minister of Marine
  • Charles Daniélou (RI) – Minister of Merchant Marine
  • Laurent Eynac (RI) – Minister of Air
  • Jean Durand (Radical) – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
  • Claudius Gallet – Minister of Pensions
  • Henri Queuille (Radical) – Minister of Agriculture
  • Lucien Lamoureux (Radical) – Minister of Colonies
  • Édouard Daladier (Radical) – Minister of Public Works
  • Julien Durand (Radical) – Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones
  • Georges Bonnet (Radical) – Minister of Commerce and Industry
  • Chautemps's Second Ministry, 26 November 1933 – 30 January 1934

  • Camille Chautemps – President of the Council and Minister of the Interior – Radical Socialist Party
  • Joseph Paul-Boncour – Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Édouard Daladier – Minister of War
  • Georges Bonnet – Minister of Finance
  • Paul Marchandeau – Minister of Budget
  • Lucien Lamoureux – Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions
  • Eugène Raynaldy – Minister of Justice
  • Albert Sarraut – Minister of Marine
  • Eugène Frot – Minister of Merchant Marine
  • Pierre Cot – Minister of Air
  • Anatole de Monzie – Minister of National Education
  • Hippolyte Ducos – Minister of Pensions
  • Henri Queuille – Minister of Agriculture
  • Albert Dalimier – Minister of Colonies
  • Joseph Paganon – Minister of Public Works
  • Alexandre Israël – Minister of Public Health
  • Jean Mistler – Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones
  • Laurent Eynac – Minister of Commerce and Industry
  • Changes

  • 9 January 1934 – Lucien Lamoureux succeeds Dalimier as Minister of Colonies. Eugène Frot succeeds Lamoureux as Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions. William Bertrand succeeds Frot as Minister of Merchant Marine.
  • Chautemps's Third Ministry, 22 June 1937 – 18 January 1938

  • Camille Chautemps – President of the Council – Radical Socialist Party
  • Léon Blum – Vice President of the Council – French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO)
  • Yvon Delbos – Minister of Foreign Affairs – Radical Socialist Party
  • Édouard Daladier – Minister of National Defense and War – Radical Socialist Party
  • Marx Dormoy – Minister of the Interior – SFIO
  • Georges Bonnet – Minister of Finance – Radical Socialist Party
  • André Février – Minister of Labour – SFIO
  • Vincent Auriol – Minister of Justice – SFIO
  • César Campinchi – Minister of Marine – Radical Socialist Party
  • Pierre Cot – Minister of Air – Radical Socialist Party
  • Jean Zay – Minister of National Education – Radical Socialist Party
  • Albert Rivière – Minister of Pensions – SFIO
  • Georges Monnet – Minister of Agriculture – Radical Socialist Party
  • Marius Moutet – Minister of Colonies – SFIO
  • Henri Queuille – Minister of Public Works – Radical Socialist Party
  • Marc Rucart – Minister of Public Health – Radical Socialist Party
  • Jean-Baptiste Lebas – Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones – SFIO
  • Fernand Chapsal – Minister of Commerce
  • Paul Faure – Minister of State – SFIO
  • Maurice Viollette – Minister of State – usr
  • Albert Sarraut – Minister of State – Radical Socialist Party
  • Léo Lagrange – Under-Secretary of State for the Sports, the Leisure activities and the Physical Education -i.e. acting like Minister for the Sports- – SFIO
  • Chautemps's Fourth Ministry, 18 January – 13 March 1938

  • Camille Chautemps – President of the Council – Radical Socialist Party
  • Édouard Daladier – Vice President of the Council and Minister of National Defense and War
  • Yvon Delbos – Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Albert Sarraut – Minister of the Interior
  • Paul Marchandeau – Minister of Finance
  • Paul Ramadier – Minister of Labour
  • César Campinchi – Minister of Justice
  • William Bertrand – Minister of Military Marine
  • Paul Elbel – Minister of Merchant Marine
  • Guy La Chambre – Minister of Air
  • Jean Zay – Minister of National Education
  • Robert Lassalle – Minister of Pensions
  • Fernand Chapsal – Minister of Agriculture
  • Théodore Steeg – Minister of Colonies
  • Henri Queuille – Minister of Public Works
  • Marc Rucart – Minister of Public Health
  • Fernand Gentin – Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones
  • Pierre Cot – Minister of Commerce
  • Georges Bonnet – Minister of State
  • Ludovic-Oscar Frossard – Minister of State in charge of the Services of the Presidency of the Council
  • References

    Camille Chautemps Wikipedia


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