Suvarna Garge (Editor)

Calcareous sponge

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Kingdom  Animalia
Scientific name  Calcarea
Rank  class
Phylum  Porifera
Higher classification  Sponge
A white Calcareous sponge found in shallow waters

Lower classifications  Calcinea, Calcaronea, Lelapiidae, Levinellidae, Achramorphidae

Calcareous sponge


The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges. They are characterized by spicules made out of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite. While the spicules in most species have three points, in some species they have either two or four points.

Contents

A white Calcareous sponge

Calcareous sponge meaning


Biology

A yellow Calcareous sponge with tiny pores

All sponges in this class are strictly marine, and, while they are distributed worldwide, most are found in shallow tropical waters. Like all other sponges, they are sedentary filter feeders.

A yellow Calcareous sponge

All three sponge body plans are represented within class Calcarea : asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid. Typically, calcareous sponges are small, measuring less than 10 cm (3.9 in) in height, and drab in colour. However, a few brightly coloured species are also known.

A Calcareous sponge in yellow thin tube-like form

Calcareous sponges vary from radially symmetrical vase-shaped body types to colonies made up of a meshwork of thin tubes, or irregular massive forms. The skeleton has either a mesh or honeycomb structure.

Classification

Of the 15,000 or so species of Porifera that exist, only 400 of those are calcareans.

Skeleton of Calcareous sponge consisting of individual spicules of calcium carbonate

Calcarean sponges first appeared during the Cambrian, and their diversity was greatest during the Cretaceous period. Recent molecular analysis suggests the class Calcarea should be designated as a phylum, in particular the first to have diverged in the Animalia; the other sponges belong to the phylum Silicarea.

The calcareous sponges are divided into two subclasses and seven orders:

Class Calcarea

  • Subclass Calcinea
  • Order Clathrinida
  • Order Leucettida
  • Order Murrayonida
  • Subclass Calcaronea
  • Order Baerida
  • Order Leucosolenida
  • Order Lithonida
  • Order Sycettida
  • Order Pharetronida

  • A yellow Calcareous sponge in tube-like form

    References

    Calcareous sponge Wikipedia