The Buick Estate was a line of full-sized station wagons manufactured by the Buick division of General Motors. As its premier luxury division, Cadillac, didn't offer a station wagon, the Estate was GM's most expensive and most fully equipped entry in the market.
The first Buick Estate station wagon was a large-bodied GM C platform Super modified with a wooden body, shared with the Oldsmobile Series 60. In 1941 and 1942 it was available on Buick's B platform Special series, and later on Buick's C platform (Roadmaster and Super) in the 1946–53 model years. From 1954 to 1958 it was only offered on the smaller B platform Century and Special, with all steel bodies. Among these were hardtop Estate Wagons called Caballero that were offered only in 1957 and 1958.
From 1959 through 1964 the Estate Wagon was offered on the B platform Invicta and LeSabre. In 1965, the Estate Wagon was replaced by the new, smaller A platform Buick Sport Wagon, making the B-body Chevrolet Impala Estate and Pontiac Safari the only full-sized GM station wagons until 1970.
The Buick Estate wagon was re-introduced as the top-level luxury station wagon for GM in 1970 to compete against the Mercury Colony Park and Chrysler Town & Country. Buick's first full-sized station wagon since 1964, it was available as a separate series on the B-body LeSabre and Wildcat, sharing their 124.0-inch (3,150 mm) wheelbase, basic body and interior. The LeSabre Custom's bright rocker, wheelhouse and rear lower fender moldings were used. Woodgrain was an option for the body sides, incorporating the traditional "Sweepspear" feature. Interiors were all vinyl in a Custom grade. Despite being on the B-body it shared the C-body division flagship Electra's 455 cubic inch V8 and four VentiPorts on the front fenders. The following year the Estate would move up to Electra's larger body and more voluminous interior.
The 1971 to 1976 Estates were the first Buick station wagons to be built on its largest chassis since the Roadmaster Estates of 1947–53. However, even though the Estate shared its 127.0-inch (3,230 mm) C-body wheelbase with the Electra 225, all 1971–76 GM wagons were assigned B-body-based per model numbers. The 1971–76 GM full-size bodies, at 64.3" front shoulder room and 63.4" rear shoulder room set a record for interior width that would not be matched by any car until the full-size GM rear-wheel drive models of the early to mid 1990s. The Estate also shared the Electra 225's interior and exterior styling from 1971 to 1974 (complete with the prerequisite four VentiPorts). Door trim and seats were not as plush in 1971–74 wagons and no door pull strap was included as it was on the Electra. And although from 1975 to 1976 the number of VentiPorts were reduced by one, and the front fascia was downgraded to a LeSabre's (as was door trim and seats), the Electra 225 style chrome rocker panel moldings and distinctive Electra 225 style rear quarter panels (albeit without fender skirts) remained. The taillights were different from both the LeSabre and the Electra in all of these years.
The Estate Wagons, as with other GM full-sized wagons during these years, used a rear suspension with multi-leaf springs instead of the coil springs used on other full-sized Buicks, and other full-sized GM cars.
The Estate Wagons also featured a new 'clamshell' tailgate design, marketed as the Glide-away Tailgate, where the rear power-operated glass slid up into the roof as the lower tailgate (manually or with power assist), slid into a recess under the cargo floor. Ultimately, the manual lower tailgate was supplanted by the power tailgate. The tailgate system was operated by switches on the instrument panel or a key switch on the rear quarter panel. Like a top-hinged tailgate, the clamshell design allowed a user to stand directly at the open cargo area without impediment, facilitating loading and unloading in tight spaces.
In its first year, 24,034 Estate Wagons were sold.
At 5,182 lb (2,351 kg) shipping weight, or about 5,400 lb (2,400 kg) curb weight, the three-seat 1974 Estate Wagons are easily the heaviest Buicks ever built, even heavier than the Buick Limited limousines of 1936–42. The 1975 and 1976 models were the longest station wagons ever built.
The Estate used the Buick 455 from 1971 to 1976 throughout. The last year that the Stage One high performance version, with high lift camshaft, enlarged ports, enlarged valves and dual exhaust was available was in 1974.
In 1977, the Buick Estate was downsized and relaunched on General Motors' B-body. In 1979, an Estate Wagon Limited was offered with many extra cost options included as standard. To further differentiate the Limited model, fenders included four VentiPorts (up from three) and the interior had loose pillow designed seating.
In 1980, body changes made the wagon more aerodynamic for better fuel efficiency. Also that year, the Electra Estate Wagon was introduced and replaced the Estate Wagon Limited while the 'base' model was now called the LeSabre Estate Wagon.
Although the Electra and LeSabre coupes and sedans had both switched to new front wheel drive platforms by 1986, the model names also continued to be used on the rear wheel drive wagons through 1989.
In 1990, its final year, the Electra and LeSabre model designations were dropped and the car was once again sold simply as the Estate Wagon. Although the Estate Wagon model was discontinued in 1990, the Estate trim designation continued on the mid-size Century and full-size Roadmaster station wagons through 1996.
Buick revived the Roadmaster name with the introduction of the Roadmaster Estate in 1991. A "Vista Roof", a fixed sunroof over the second row seats, was standard. Initially the Roadmaster Estate used Chevrolet's 5.0 L small-block V8, but used the larger 5.7 L version from 1992. In 1994 the 5.7 L LT1 engine with dual exhaust became standard, the same as used on the Impala SS and on Chevrolet police cars. A high-performance engine had last been offered on a GM station wagon in 1974.
GM discontinued the Roadmaster Estate in 1996, ending production on December 13 of that year.