| 1984 (1984)|| North America|
| Professional conservation association|
The Association of North American Graduate Programs in the Conservation of Cultural Property (ANAGPIC) is an organization comprising universities located in North America that offer graduate programs in the field of art conservation. Each association member's primary mission is to provide education and training in conservation through the awarding of an accredited degree. Since 1974, the conservation graduate programs have held an annual meeting at one of the member programs in order to give current students the opportunity to present current research to their peers.
Association of North American Graduate Programs in the Conservation of Cultural Property Wikipedia
The first conference of North American graduate programs in the conservation of art and other cultural property was held in 1974 at the Corning Museum of Glass in response to a flood that damaged the museum's artifact and library collection on June 23, 1972. While only three percent of the museum's glass collection sustained damage, over half of the museum's library holdings were lost or severely devastated. This five-day conference entitled, "Conservation Seminar on Glass and Library Materials," was organized by Dr. Robert H. Brill, the Corning Museum's research scientist. For the first time, this conference brought together students, faculty, conservators, curators, and other museum specialists for several days of lectures and discussions on the field of conservation. Five American programs and a contingent from the Canadian Conservation Institute were in attendance; Cooperstown Graduate Program, Winterthur/University of Delaware, Intermuseum Conservation Association, New York University, Canadian Conservation Institute, and the Fogg Art Museum. Since the Corning Museum conference, annual meetings have become an integral part of ANAGPIC as a way to provide insight into the quality of the education provided by each program represented. Notable conservation professionals also present lectures during the conferences that address a specific area of interest in conservation, such as "Extreme Conservation" at the 2014 ANAGPIC conference. These lectures provide students with powerful insight on important issues for their future careers.
The Association of North American Graduate Programs in the Conservation of Cultural Property (ANAGPIC) was founded in May, 1984 by the following organizations: Buffalo State College, State University of New York, Art Conservation Department; Harvard University Art Museums, Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies; New York University, Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts; Queen’s University, Art Conservation Program; Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation; The University of Texas at Austin, School of Information, Kilgarlin Center for Preservation of the Cultural Record.
The general purpose of the Association of North American Graduate Programs in the Conservation of Cultural Property (ANAGPIC) is to “help serve the need of the conservation field for well-trained professional conservators by aiding its member training programs to attain their educational objectives.”
In order for organizations to be eligible for membership, they must have provided conservation training for at least three consecutive years, and they must award a diploma, degree, or certificate formally acknowledged by their parent academic association. Within that parent institution, the member organization must be a distinct program, whose primary mission is conservation education and training. The program's curriculum must have substantial components of problem-solving in conservation and conservation science, and should conform to the AIC Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Practice. The student to faculty ratio must also be no greater than ten students per faculty member, and these faculty members must have professional qualifications to teach conservation at a graduate level. This can be demonstrated through substantial professional recognition through the International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (IIC), the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC), or the Canadian Association of Professional Conservators (CAPC).
At least one meeting of the ANAGPIC is held annually, normally concurrent with the annual Conference of the Conservation Training Programs, at present held in late spring. Typically, each institution is represented by two student presenters. Other meetings can be called as necessary if agreed to by at least two-thirds of the membership. Each member organization is normally represented by the training program director/chairperson.
Buffalo State College's Art Conservation Department was founded in 1970 as the Cooperstown Graduate Program in the Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, affiliated with the State University of New York College at Oneonta and with the New York State Historical Association in Cooperstown. In 1983, the program transferred to Buffalo State College, and then relocated to its campus in 1987. Since its founding, Buffalo State offers a master of arts degree and certificate of advanced study in art conservation upon the completion of a three-year graduate program which trains conservators of fine art and material cultural heritage. This program accepts only 10 students per academic year. Buffalo State is the largest four-year college of arts and sciences in the State University of New York (SUNY) system. Buffalo State's campus also hosts the Burchfield Penney Art Center and located across the street from the Albright-Knox Art Gallery.
Art Conservation, M.A., C.A.S.First Year - Students take courses in conservation imaging, documentation and examination, conservation science, and in the specialties of paper, paintings, and objects.
Second Year - Students continue to take conservation imaging, examination and documentation as well as conservation science, but they focus primarily on their chosen area of specialization (objects, paintings, or paper). Students may also choose a subspecialty, such as ethnographic or archaeological objects, photographs, or books.
Third Year - Students complete a 12-month internship at a museum or similar institution selected by the student and faculty advisor.
The following admission requirements represent the minimum qualifications a potential student must meet in order to be considered for a graduate program in art conservation at Buffalo State.
- Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university with a minimum cumulative GPA of 2.8 (4.0 scale).
- Acceptable scores on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), e.g. at least a score of 500 each in verbal and quantitative.
- Completion of the following coursework, at minimum:
- Art History (21 credits) - Courses should include broad surveys of art history, as well as more focused studies of particular art movements. Acceptable courses can also include up to 12 semester hours outside of an art history department, such as classics, archaeology or anthropology courses that focus on artifacts, history of the book, history of photography, history of furniture and other material culture courses.
- Chemistry (16 credits) - Courses should be a two-semester general chemistry course with accompanying laboratory sections and a two-semester organic chemistry course with accompanying laboratory sections.
- Studio Arts (9 credits) - Courses should include a broad range of studio art classes, such as drawing, printmaking, painting, ceramics, or fibers.
- While the Admissions Committee at Buffalo State does not require a minimum number of internship hours to be completed before applying to the program, all applicants must have hands-on experience working with a professional conservator. Applicants must be able to demonstrate experience with completing supervised conservation treatments, as well as a basic understanding of treatment methods and techniques, conservation problem solving, and related issues.
Selected applicants are invited to Buffalo for an hour-long interview, scheduled for late March or early April of each year. Interviewees are asked to present a portfolio of artwork and a summary of their conservation experience, usually through a power point presentation. A color perception test is also administered.
The Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies provides analysis and treatments for the Harvard Art Museums’ collection, consisting of more than 250,000 objects in all media, ranging in date from antiquity to the present. The Department of Technical Studies became the ﬁrst institution in the United States to use scientiﬁc methods to study artists’ materials and techniques when it was founded in 1928 by Edward W. Forbes, director of Harvard University’s Fogg Museum. In 1994, the center was renamed the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies in honor of Philip A. and Lynn Straus, who were longtime benefactors of the Harvard Art Museums. In 1972, with the support from the National Endowment for the Arts, the Straus Center began their Advanced-Level Training Program which provides formal hands-on training in the conservation of works on paper, paintings, and objects and sculpture, as well as in conservation science. They oﬀer three 10-month fellowships each year in which fellows can reﬁne their practical and analytical skills through the examination and treatment of works of art from the Harvard Art Museums' collections. Fellows also have the chance to publish their original research.
The Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University (NYU) was founded in 1960 with support from the Rockefeller Foundation. Since that time, the program has called for equal measures of art historical study, scientific training, and practical conservation experience. The goal was to produce a professional who would approach each object as an individual entity. The solution to an object's condition issues would be determined through research and study, unlike the tradesman restorer’s approach, which applied standard treatments to objects and problems. Unlike other conservation graduate programs, NYU awards a four-year, dual-degree graduate program where students earn both their Master’s in art history and Advanced Certificate in conservation. The Conservation Center is also the oldest degree-granting conservation program in North America.
Art History, M.A. with Advanced Certificate in ConservationFirst Year - Students gain an understanding of materials and technology, with a heavy emphasis on direct observation. No treatment is carried out during the first year, apart from simple treatment methodologies carried out in Principles of Conservation. Students must also successfully pass a language translation exam within their first year of study, in the language of their choosing - French, German or Italian.
Second Year - Students complete core classes and begin training in their specialized area of study at the Conservation Center, as well as museums and private laboratories in NYC. Students also have the ability to pursue independent research projects in areas of particular interest to them.
Third Year - Students continue upper-level conservation treatment coursework in their area of concentration and complete any remaining requirements for the MA degree in art history, including the completion of the Master’s Thesis.
Fourth Year - Students complete a nine-month internship in their area of specialization at an established conservation institution. Students can complete this internship in the United States or abroad.
The following admission requirements represent the minimum qualifications a potential student must meet in order to be considered for the conservation graduate program at the Institute of Fine Arts, NYU.
- Bachelor's degree (B.A., B.F.A. or B.S.) from an accredited institution.
- Completion of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), and, if applicable, the TOEFL exam. A TOEFL score of 100+ is required.
- A reading knowledge of French, German or Italian, or the clear intent to obtain such ability.
- Completion of the following coursework, at minimum:
- Art History - Four courses in upper-level art history courses, beyond the survey level
- Chemistry - Four laboratory science courses at the college level, of which organic chemistry I is required. Ideally, a full chemistry track (“general chemistry I and II” and organic chemistry I and II) is preferred.
- A displayed competency in studio work, which will be determined through a portfolio review if the applicant is selected for an interview.
Selected applicants are invited to NYU for an interview, during which they present evidence of their familiarity with as wide a range of artists’ materials and techniques through a portfolio of relevant studio arts and, if applicable, prior conservation work. The portfolio comprises a maximum of five studio pieces and no more than one treatment. Artist portfolios can contain examples of both traditional and non-traditional artists' techniques.
Since its founding in 1974, the Master of Art Conservation Program (MAC) at Queen's University in Kingston has offered the only full-time graduate-level training program in the field of art conservation in Canada. The MAC program's treatment stream is completed in two years and allows students to specialize in one of the following: treatment of artifacts, paintings, or paper. Each student chooses a specialization upon acceptance into the program. Students in the treatment streams have the opportunity to work with the humanities, science, and engineering departments at Queen’s to undertake projects with museums, galleries, archives, the Canadian Conservation Institute, and industrial partners. Along with the treatment stream, the MAC program also offers a two-year research stream to science and engineering graduates, which would ultimately lead to a career in conservation science. Students in the research stream complete original research and a thesis surrounding topics such as the history of technology or other conservation-related areas.
Master of Art Conservation, M.A.C.First Year - Students in the treatment stream complete courses in theoretical and practical study on campus, advanced lecture courses, lab work in conservation of heritage objects, and a research project in their area of specialization. During the summer, a 12-week off-campus internship is completed anywhere around the world.
Second Year - Students finish courses in theoretical and practical study on campus, advanced lecture courses, lab work in conservation of heritage objects, and a research project in their area of specialization. During the summer, a second 12-week off-campus internship is completed.
The following admission requirements represent the minimum qualifications a potential student must meet in order to be considered for the Master in Art Conservation Treatment Stream at Queen's University.
- Four year Honours bachelor's degree in humanities, sciences or engineering with upper second-class standing (or equivalent).
- An undergraduate degree in the humanities must have a minimum of five full-year courses in art history, ethnology, archaeology, or equivalent.
- A science or engineering undergraduate degree must have a minimum of two full-year courses in art history, ethnology, archaeology, or equivalent.
- One full-year, post-secondary course in fine art studio or workshop practice (or equivalent).
- Three terms of chemistry at the university level, including at least one term of organic chemistry, all courses preferably with a laboratory component.
- Experience in conservation is highly recommended.
- For international students, if required, a minimum TOEFL total score of 600 (paper-based) or TOEFL iBT minimum scores of: writing (24/30); speaking (22/30); reading (22/30); listening (20/30), for a total of 88/120.
Applicants who are offered an admissions interview are required to present a portfolio of their conservation and studio work.
In 1999, Getty Conservation Institute and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) formally announced their intention to work together in creating a graduate-level program in archaeological and ethnographic conservation that could complement existing programs and expand educational opportunities. Students are provided with a solid educational base and a developed appreciation of the complex range of issues relating to significance, access, and use of these materials. The UCLA/Getty Master's Program on the Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials is the only graduate conservation training program on the west coast of the United States, as well as the only program to focus primarily on archeological and ethnographic materials. Unlike the other programs offered in North America, the UCLA/Getty program only admits students every two years, with an incoming class size between six and twelve students.
Art Conservation, M.A.First Year - Students study the structure, properties and deterioration of materials relating to archeological and ethnographic materials. They also complete courses on the ethical dilemmas of conserving cultural heritage materials. Laboratory courses begin in the spring of the first year. A 10-week summer internship is completed between the first and second years of study.
Second Year - Students complete laboratory courses on the materials studied in the first year, as well as begin preparations for their masters thesis.
Third Year - Students complete a 9-month internship associated with a field school or a cultural institution.
The following admission requirements represent the minimum qualifications a potential student must meet in order to be considered for the conservation graduate program at UCLA/Getty.
- Bachelor's degree (B.A. or B.S.) in the following areas of study: archaeology, anthropology, art history, cultural history, the sciences, or fields related to the study of past societies.
- Completion of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and, if applicable, submission of TOEFL scores.
- Completion of the following coursework, at minimum (one academic year each):
- Archaeology, Cultural Anthropology, or Ethnography
- Art History (studies in archaeological or ethnographic materials and/or traditions preferred)
- General Chemistry (with lab)
- Organic Chemistry (with lab)
- One other Science (i.e., Physical Chemistry, Biology, Geology, Physics, etc.) is preferred, but is not essential to be considered for admission.
- Proficiency in one modern foreign language must be demonstrated.
- 200–400 hours (the equivalent of 5 to 10 weeks of full-time work) of documented practical experience in conservation.
Applicants who are offered an admissions interview are required to present a portfolio of their conservation and studio work that demonstrates an understanding of the characteristics of materials and dexterity in their handling, fabrication, and preservation.
The University of Delaware Art Conservation Department offers preservation degrees at the undergraduate, Master's, and PhD levels, including an undergraduate degree in Art Conservation offered at the Newark campus; a three-year Master's of Science in Art Conservation offered in collaboration between the University of Delaware & Winterthur Museum; and doctoral program in Preservation Studies in collaboration with the Center for Material Culture Studies at the University of Delaware. In January 1969, the Winterthur Board of Trustees approved the creation of a coordinated program in museum conservation that would utilize Winterthur's conservation laboratories and the science and humanities departments at the University of Delaware. The Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation (WUDPAC) is a three-year Masters-level Program leading to a Master of Science in Art Conservation. Currently, the Crowninshield Research Building of the Winterthur Museum houses 26 conservation studios, laboratories, examination rooms, and workshops used by faculty and students in the graduate programs, as well as the Winterthur Scientific Research and Analysis Laboratory equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation.
Art Conservation, M.S.First Year - Students complete courses that provide an overview of the conservation field and its varied specialties: the history of art and artifact technology, the essential physical and chemical properties of materials, mechanisms of deterioration, and the conservation treatment of cultural property, and the fundamentals of preventive conservation.
Second Year - Students focus on their specialty of choice (furniture, objects, paintings, paper, photographic materials, and textiles) with the objective of continuing the development of basic hand skills, a thorough ability to examine and document the condition of cultural property, problem solving and ethical treatment decision making, and an understanding of the care and preservation of specialty objects.
Third Year - Students complete internships under the supervision and mentoring of a conservation professional(s) at one or more host institution(s) or private laboratories.
The following admission requirements represent the minimum qualifications a potential student must meet in order to be considered for the conservation graduate program at Winterthur/University of Delaware.
- Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree is required. Applicants must have an overall academic index (on a 4.0 point scale) of at least 2.5 and an index in the field of concentration of 3.0.
- Completion of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). Applicants are expected to obtain a GRE score in the sixty-fifth percentile or better for the verbal section, the fiftieth percentile or better for the quantitative section and a score of 4.0 or above on the analytical section. If applicable, TOEFL scores must be submitted.
- Completion of the following coursework, at minimum:
- Art History (18 credits) - Ideally, no more than 1-2 of these courses would be introductory survey courses while 4-5 would be upper-level courses in different cultural traditions and/or different historical periods.
- Chemistry (16 credits) - Courses should be a two-semester general chemistry course with accompanying laboratory sections and a two-semester organic chemistry course with accompanying laboratory sections. Applicants are encouraged to take an additional (fifth) science course for 3-4 credits to supplement or strengthen their understanding of the fundamental principles underlying conservation science.
- Studio Arts (15 credits) - Course should include two semesters of drawing, one painting course, one three-dimensional design course, and an additional course from the following: drawing, color, painting, printmaking (intaglio, lithography or woodcut), photography, sculpture, woodworking, ceramics, glassmaking, jewelry making, metal making and fabrication, weaving, tailoring, pattern making, papermaking, bookbinding, letterpress printing.
- Applicants must have completed at least 400 hours of documented conservation experience under the supervision of a conservator. Appropriate experience may include work in regional, institutional or private conservation laboratories. Involvement in supervised collection care projects such a collection assessments, rehousing, and exhibition design, as well as examination and treatment of individual artifacts is also encouraged.
Applicants who reach the final stages of evaluation will be invited for an in-person interview, at which time they will present a portfolio of both two- and three-dimensional objects that demonstrate their art and crafts skills and their conservation experiences. During their time at Winterthur, applicants are also required to take a standardized test for alternate color vision, an examination of their freehand drawing skills, a one-hour chemistry exam, and complete a written opinion piece.
The annual meetings held by the current member organizations of ANAGPIC have become an eagerly anticipated event among students, faculty, and speakers. They not only provide a venue for students to present current research to their peers, but to also build camaraderie among the students "that becomes the foundation of their future collegial relationships as practicing professionals."