Puneet Varma

Ant spider

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Kingdom  Animalia
Suborder  Opisthothelae
Scientific name  Zodariidae
Higher classification  Zodaroidea
Order  Spider
Subphylum  Chelicerata
Infraorder  Araneomorphae
Phylum  Arthropoda
Rank  Family
Ant spider ednieuwhomexs4allnlaustralianZodariidaeStoro
Lower classifications  Zodarion, Hermippus loricatus

Giant spider golden orb scary spider bite close up ants attacking


Ant spiders are members of the family Zodariidae. They are small to medium-sized eight-eyed spiders found world-wide in tropical to warm temperate regions, though there are relatively few species in North America.

Contents

Some zodariids are ant mimics. Although ant mimicry is quite common in spiders, the form it takes in the zodariids is unusual because, although each species bears a morphological resemblance to the species of ant that forms its prey, the resemblance is not particularly close. It is enhanced by the spider's behaviour. The spiders live in association with a nest of ants of their prey species, and use their mimicry to enter and leave the nest unmolested (if the ants detected them as intruders they would mass to repel and perhaps kill them). The spiders walk on only the three rear pairs of legs, and if they encounter an ant during their forays into the nest territory, they touch their front legs to the ant's antennae in the same way as another ant would with its own antennae. If they have already captured an ant, they then offer that towards the challenging ant, which inspects it and behaves towards the spider as if it were another ant carrying a dead conspecific away from the nest (a common behaviour among ants).

It is likely that the spiders also derive some protection against predation from their similarity to the ants, since ants are unpalatable to many species that eat spiders.

Systematics

The categorization into subfamilies follows Joel Hallan's Biology Catalog.

  • Cydrelinae Simon, 1893
  • Aschema Jocqué, 1991
  • Caesetius Simon, 1893
  • Capheris Simon, 1893
  • Cydrela Thorell, 1873
  • Eocydrele Petrunkevitch, 1958 † (fossil)
  • Procydrela Jocqué, 1999
  • Psammoduon Jocqué, 1991
  • Psammorygma Jocqué, 1991
  • Rotundrela Jocqué, 1999
  • Cyriocteinae Jocqué, 1991
  • Cyrioctea Simon, 1889
  • Lachesaninae Jocqué, 1991
  • Antillorena Jocqué, 1991
  • Australutica Jocqué, 1995
  • Lachesana Strand, 1932
  • Lutica Marx, 1891
  • Sterenomorphinae Simon, 1893
  • Chariobas Simon, 1893
  • Cicynethus Simon, 1910
  • Madrela Jocqué, 1991
  • Storenomorpha Simon, 1884
  • Thaumastochilus Simon, 1897
  • Storeninae Simon, 1893
  • Amphiledorus Jocqué & Bosmans, 2001
  • Asceua Thorell, 1887
  • Asteron Jocqué, 1991
  • Basasteron Baehr, 2003
  • Cavasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2000
  • Chilumena Jocqué, 1995
  • Cybaeodamus Mello-Leitão, 1938
  • Euasteron Baehr, 2003
  • Forsterella Jocqué, 1991
  • Habronestes L. Koch, 1872
  • Hermippus Simon, 1893
  • Hetaerica Rainbow, 1916
  • Ishania Chamberlin, 1925
  • Leprolochus Simon, 1893
  • Leptasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2001
  • Mallinella Strand, 1906
  • Minasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2000
  • Neostorena Rainbow, 1914
  • Nostera Jocqué, 1991
  • Pax Levy, 1990
  • Pentasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2001
  • Phenasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2001
  • Platnickia Jocqué, 1991
  • Pseudasteron Jocqué & Baehr, 2001
  • Selamia Simon, 1873
  • Spinasteron Baehr, 2003
  • Storena Walckenaer, 1805
  • Storosa Jocqué, 1991
  • Subasteron Baehr & Jocqué, 2001
  • Tenedos O. P.-Cambridge, 1897
  • Tropasteron Baehr, 2003
  • Zillimata Jocqué, 1995
  • Zodariinae Thorell, 1881
  • Akyttara Jocqué, 1987
  • Diores Simon, 1893
  • Dusmadiores Jocqué, 1987
  • Heradida Simon, 1893
  • Mallinus Simon, 1893
  • Mastidiores Jocqué, 1987
  • Microdiores Jocqué, 1987
  • Palaestina O. P.-Cambridge, 1872
  • Palfuria Simon, 1910
  • Ranops Jocqué, 1991
  • Suffasia Jocqué, 1991
  • Trygetus Simon, 1882
  • Zodarion Walckenaer, 1826
  • incertae sedis
  • Adjutor Petrunkevitch, 1942 † (fossil)
  • Admissor Petrunkevitch, 1942 † (fossil)
  • Anniculus Petrunkevitch, 1942 † (fossil)
  • Colima Jocqué & Baert, 2006
  • Cryptothele L. Koch, 1872 (Southeast Asia)
  • Epicratinus Jocqué & Baert, 2006
  • Euryeidon Dankittipakul & Jocqué, 2004
  • Heradion Dankittipakul & Jocqué, 2004
  • Holasteron Baehr, 2004
  • Masasteron Baehr, 2003
  • Notasteron Baehr, 2001
  • Tropizodium Jocqué & Churchill, 2005
  • Zodariellum Andreeva & Tyschchenko, 1968
  • References

    Ant spider Wikipedia


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