Melnikova competed at the 2014 L'International Gymnix to win the team gold medal and all-around silver medal in Junior International Cup. She also placed second on uneven bars and third on floor exercise. In April, Melnikova competed at the Russian National Championships which were held in Penza with her home team, the Central Federal District. Her team placed first with a combined total score of 267.966. Individually Melnikova had a strong showing placing first in the Junior Master of the Sport All-Around with a score of 58.300. She also won two other gold medals on beam and floor with scores of 14.700 and 14.167 respectively. She competed in the uneven bars final and placed seventh. The results of these championships were used to help determine the gymnasts who would compete at the European Championships in Sofia and due to her strong performance Melnikova was selected for the team. In May 2014, Melnikova competed at the European Gymnastics Championships in the junior division alongside teammates Maria Bondareva, Daria Skrypnik, Seda Tutkhalyan and Anastasia Dmitrieva. As a team they placed first with a combined score of 168.268. Melnikova then went on to win a gold medal in the all-around competition and on beam and a silver medal on bars behind teammate Skrypnik.
Melnikova competed at the Junior Russian Championships in Penza, Russia on 1–4 April. She finished in 1st place with her team, then went on to take the silver in the all-around, 5th on the uneven bars, gold on the balance beam, and silver on the floor.
In September she performed at the Russian Cup. She was ineligible to compete due to her junior status, so performed as a guest. Her overall score of 57.234 was the highest of the competition, beating official champion Daria Spiridonova's score of 56.733.
Melnikova competed at the Elite Gym Massilia meet in Marseille, France in November, taking the all-around title ahead of France's Marine Brevet and Romania's Diana Bulimar, and winning a silver team medal for Russia with teammates Daria Skrypnik, Evgeniya Shelgunova and Natalia Kapitonova. She qualified to the floor and uneven bars event finals, but counted falls in both events, leaving her in 6th and 5th place respectively.
On 18–20 March, Melnikova debuted in international competition at the DTB Pokal Team Challenge Cup where Team Russia won the gold medal. On 1–10 April, Melnikova won the all-around at the 2016 Russian Artistic Gymnastics Championships; as well as taking gold in balance beam, floor exercise and finished 5th in the uneven bars final. In July, Melnikova was named to the 2016 Olympic team and will represent Russia at the Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. At the Olympic Games, she performed subpar-- partially due to a strained hamstring suffered during podium training-- falling off beam and floor in qualifying, failing to qualify into the individual all around or any of the event finals, as many expected her to. She improved upon her performance in team finals, competing all 4 events, but still counting a fall on beam. Her performances contributed to Russia's silver medal.
Melnikova started her season at the Russian National Championships in Kazan. Although she was expected to do well in the absence of Olympic champion Aliya Mustafina, as well as coming into the meet as the reigning national champion, she faltered throughout the competition on every event except vault, finishing 9th in the all-around. She also placed 3rd on vault and Beam, falling on the latter. Despite her poor showing at nationals, Melnikova participated in the 2017 Stuttgart World Cup in March, placing second behind Germany's Tabea Alt. She then competed at the City of Jesolo Trophy, where she received three bronze medals in the team all-around, vault and floor exercise. She then participated at the 2017 London World Cup. She competed poorly, falling on beam and floor with major mistakes on bars and vault. It was announced in April that she would attend the European championships as part of the Russian team. During qualifiers, she fell on the balance beam and uneven bars, and she did not qualify for the individual all-around, but she qualified for the vault and floor exercise final. During the vault, her form was not as good as the other gymnasts, resulting in her coming 8th. During the floor exercise final, she did a surprisingly clean routine which resulted in her winning the gold medal ahead of British gymnast Ellie Downie and Eythora Thorsdottir from the Netherlands. Her score in the final was the highest international score on floor exercise for the 2017 season thus far.