Initially drafted by the Montreal Canadiens, 182nd overall in the 2002 NHL Entry Draft, Deveaux made his National Hockey League (NHL) debut with the Toronto Maple Leafs on November 27, 2008, against the Ottawa Senators. In addition to playing with the Maple Leafs, Deveaux has been a member of the Toronto Marlies, Chicago Wolves and Springfield Falcons of the American Hockey League (AHL) and the Johnstown Chiefs of the ECHL. Deveaux is the first person born in the Bahamas to play in the NHL.
On February 12, 2010, after getting penalized for a melee in a game between the Marlies and the Manitoba Moose in Winnipeg involving almost all the players on the ice, Deveaux was alleged to have been taunted with racial slurs by a fan while in the penalty box. Deveaux subsequently threw a roll of hockey tape in the heckler's direction and was suspended for three games by the AHL.
On August 24, 2010, Deveaux signed as a free agent to a one-year contract to return to the AHL's Chicago Wolves.
On August 16, 2011, Deveaux signed as an unrestricted free agent with the New York Rangers.
On November 25, 2011, while playing for the Rangers, Deveaux was suspended by the NHL for three games, for delivering an illegal check to the head of forward Tomas Fleischmann in a game against the Florida Panthers on November 23, 2011. Deveaux was eligible to return December 1, 2011, however instead Rangers president and general manager Glen Sather announced Deveaux had been assigned to the Connecticut Whale of the AHL.
On July 9, 2012, Deveaux signed a one-year contract as a free agent with the Panthers. With the NHL lockout in affect, Deveaux was directly assigned to Florida's AHL affiliate, the San Antonio Rampage. On March 19, 2013, during a game in Cedar Park, Texas, against the Texas Stars, Deveaux was accidentally high-sticked in the face. As he fell to the ice he slid underneath teammate Nolan Yonkman, knocking him over. As Yonkman tried not to fall he accidentally stepped on Deveaux's face, with full force. The resulting cut required dozens of stitches to close.
On March 26, 2015 during a game between VIK Västerås HK and Rögle BK, Per Helmersson checked Deveaux into the boards, resulting in Deveaux losing consciousness. At the following game, Deveaux attacked VIK Västerås HK defenseman Per Helmersson from behind during the warmups for a game between VIK Västerås and Rögle BK in Swedish league HockeyAllsvenskan. On March 30, after video of the incident was posted on YouTube, Rögle terminated Deveaux's contract for next season. Swedish prosecutors subsequently issued an arrest warrant for Deveaux in response to the incident. On May 8, Deveaux and his wife held a press conference in Toronto, outlining his side of the incident and describing the lingering effects of the Helmersson hit.
Deveaux took a hiatus and returned to the professional during the 2016-17 season in agreeing to a try-out with Czech club, HC Sparta Praha of the Czech Extraliga on January 26, 2017. Keen to prove a point with his play rather than his past, Deveaux secured a contract for the remainder of the season on February 3, 2017. Over the final stretch of the season, he contributed with a goal and assist in 4 games.