Roman Empire (?)
| Rampart and the main building standing|
Anvarza Castle is an ancient castle in Adana Province, Turkey
Anavarza Castle Wikipedia
The castle lies to the east of Dilekkaya village of Kozan district at 37°15′03″N 35°53′50″E. Visitors follow Turkish state highway and the highway to north for 26 kilometres (16 mi) and turn to east for 6 kilometres (3.7 mi). Although the vicinity of the castle is Çukurova plains (Cilicia of the antiquity) which is almost flat, there is a hill with steep slopes of about 150 metres (490 ft) high with respect to plains. The castle was built on the hill. The hill is accessible via a path from the south.
The castle had been built to control the ancient city with the same name. The remains of the city (which is on the plains) lies between the village and the castle. The bird's flight distance between the remains and the castle is about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi). During the history the castle had switched hands and partially ruined several times (Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Abbasid Caliphate, Crusaders, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Mamluks of Egypt etc.) . Although the city was evacuated in 1274 following an earthquake the castle was used by Mamluks.
The height of the rampart is about 8 metres (26 ft). The length of the rampart from north to south is about 1,500 metres (4,900 ft). There are 20 bastions. East to west dimension is much less than this length. The inner bailey is to the north of the castle. The military quarters and a 3-nave church which was built by Thoros II of the Rubenids are in the center of the castle. The castle can be visited free of charge.