Okugo grew up in Sacramento, California, attended Rio Americano High School and Jesuit High School, and played one year of college soccer at UCLA in 2009, where he was named the 2009 Pac-10 Freshman of the Year.
Okugo was drafted in the first round (6th overall) of the 2010 MLS SuperDraft by Philadelphia Union. He made his professional debut on March 25, 2010, in the opening game of the 2010 MLS season against Seattle Sounders FC. After featuring in 26 league matches in his first two seasons with Philadelphia, Okugo became a regular starter for the Union during the 2012 season appearing in 27 matches. During the 2013 he continued to anchor the Union back line as he appeared in 32 matches and scored three goals. In June 2014 Okugo moved to his familiar role of defensive midfielder with the hiring of manager Jim Curtin and played there throughout the rest of the season.
In December 2014, Okugo was traded to Orlando City SC for allocation money and the Union's second round pick in the 2016 MLS SuperDraft. While with Orlando he featured mostly as a starter in his 15 matches with the club. On July 20, 2015, Okugo was traded to Sporting Kansas City in a swap deal which involved Servando Carrasco moving to Orlando City Soccer Club.
On April 10, 2016, Major League Soccer loaned Okugo to the New York Red Bulls II of the United Soccer League. Because Okugo is still under contract with the league and unattached, they are able to loan him and his contract. The same day he made his debut for the side starting in central defense in a 4-0 victory over Bethlehem Steel FC.
After his quick stint with Red Bulls II, Okugo signed a permanent deal with the defending MLS Cup Champions, Portland Timbers on May 16.
Okugo has been a mainstay in U.S. youth national teams for many years. He played with the U-20s at the 2009 CONCACAF Championships and with the U-18s at the 2009 Australian Youth Festival, where he scored two goals in three games. He was in residency with the U.S. U-17s and had six caps in 2007, and scored the only goal for the U.S. U-18 team at the 2008 Lisbon Tournament.
Okugo started and played the full 90 minutes in 2 games for the U-20's at the Torneo De Las Americas in November 2010. He captained the team in their match vs. Colombia. Okugo was also a late addition to the U-20 camp in January 2011.
Okugo, along with Union teammate Zac MacMath, was called up to the U-20 squad for the CONCACAF U-20 Championship in March and April 2011. Philadelphia Union were the only Major League Soccer team with two players represented. In late 2011, Okugo was called into the first two USMNT U-23 Olympic camps. Okugo was called into the final camp before qualifying as the U-23's take on the Mexican U-23's.As of April 10, 2016
Okugo was born to Nigerian parents. His favorite players growing up were Nigerian internationals Jay-Jay Okocha, Sunday Oliseh, and John Obi Mikel. In addition to playing professionally, Okugo once coached soccer to young soccer players in Philadelphia. Also, at age 13, Amobi played for what is largely considered the most dominant youth soccer team of all time, El Dorado Crew, where he won the US Youth Soccer Far West Regional Championships in Spokane, Washington in a stunning 5-0 victory over Santa Cruz County Chivitias. Amobi also runs a website called Frugal Athlete where he and other professional athletes post blog articles and videos to help increase financial literacy and encourage prudent financial practices among their peers in professional sports as well as the general public at large.