An alumnus (/əˈlʌmnəs/; masculine, plural alumni /əˈlʌmnaɪ/), an alumna (/əˈlʌmnə/; feminine, plural alumnae /əˈlʌmniː/), or an alumnum (/əˈlʌmnəm/; neuter, plural alumna /əˈlʌmnə/) is a former student or pupil of a school, college, or university. Commonly, but not always, the word refers to a graduate of the educational institute in question. An alumnus can also be a former member, employee, contributor, or inmate, as well as a former student.
The Latin noun alumnus means "foster son, pupil" and is derived from the verb alere "to nourish". The word alumnus appears in Roman law to describe a child placed in fosterage. According to John Boswell, the word "is nowhere defined in relation to status, privilege, or obligation." Citing the research of John Boswell, who studied the many inscriptions about alumni, Boswell concluded that it referred to exposed children who were taken into a household where they were "regarded as somewhere between an heir and a slave, partaking in different ways of both categories." Despite the warmth of feelings between the parent and child, "an alumnus might be treated both as a beloved child and as a household servant."
An alumnus, alumna, or alumnum is a former student and most often a graduate of an educational institution (school, college, university). For example: Kurt Bowermaster is an alumnus of Drake University. According to the United States Department of Education, the term alumnae is used in conjunction with either women's colleges or a female group of students. The term alumni is used in conjunction with either men's colleges, a male group of students, or a mixed group of students:
In accordance with the rules of grammar governing the inflexion of nouns in the Romance languages, the masculine plural alumni is correctly used for groups composed of both sexes: the alumni of Princeton University.
The term is sometimes informally shortened to "alum" (optional plural "alums").
Alumni reunions are popular events at many institutions. They are usually organized by alumni associations and are often social occasions for fundraising. The terminology is primarily used in the USA, although its usage is gradually beginning more widespread.
At some old UK schools (especially independent schools and grammar schools), New Zealand schools, South African schools, Sri Lankan schools, a few universities in the UK, and to a lesser extent in Australia and Canada, the phrases "old boy" and "old girl" are traditionally used for former school pupils, and "old member" or "member" (or "alumnus" in Australia and New Zealand) for former university students. Some Australian co-educational schools use the gender-neutral "old scholar". At the Royal Military College of Canada, the phrases "ex-cadet" or "former cadet" and member of the "old brigade" are traditionally used, as are college numbers. Further examples are the terms "Old Corps", or "Old Army" in reference to alumni from the Virginia Military Institute and Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets, respectively.
The term "Old Boys" is also used as part of many sporting associations and clubs worldwide. Famous examples include Argentine football club Newell's Old Boys and New Zealand rugby union club High School Old Boys RFC.
Some schools use a specific term clearly linked to the school name, such as "Old Stoic", "Old Pauline", "Old Etonian", "Old Harrovian", "Old Carthusian", "Old Oswestrian", "Old Churcherian", "Old Knox Grammarian", "Old Colcestrian", "Old Collegian", or "Old Reptonian" (old boys of, respectively, Stowe School, St Paul's School, Eton College, Harrow School, Charterhouse School, Oswestry School, Churcher's College, Knox Grammar School, Colchester Royal Grammar School, Hull Collegiate School and Repton School); the school's location, such as "Old Albanian" (St Albans School), "Old Herefordian" (Hereford Cathedral School), "Old Chelmsfordian" (King Edward VI Grammar School, Chelmsford) or "Old Mancunian" (Manchester Grammar School); or a more obscure one, such as "Old Citizen" and "Old Gregorian" for those of the City of London School and Downside School. Other UK examples include "Old Alleynian" (Dulwich College), "Old Blue" (Christ's Hospital), "Old Dunumian" (Down High School), "Old Novocastrian" (Royal Grammar School, Newcastle upon Tyne), "Old Clavian" (Bury Grammar School), "Old Midwhitgiftian" (Trinity School of John Whitgift), "Old Elizabethan" (Queen Elizabeth's Hospital) and "Old Waynflete" (Magdalen College School, Oxford).
In Scotland, the term "former pupil" (FP) is also used, especially when referring to sports teams of a school as well as "Academical" or "Accie" in the case of schools with Academy in their name, such as Hamilton Academical.
Some US schools, such as Texas A&M University, prefer "former student". Also in the US, "former student" is commonly used to refer to dropouts of the institution.
The World Student Christian Federation uses the term "senior friends" for its alumni.