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Adam Mickiewicz Alley

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Owner  City of Bydgoszcz
Location  Bydgoszcz
Length  400 m (1,300 ft)
Namesake  Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Mickiewicz Alley httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu
Part of  Bydgoszcz Old town district

Adam Mickiewicz Alley is one of the main streets of downtown district in Bydgoszcz.

Contents

Map of Aleje Adama Mickiewicza, Bydgoszcz, Poland

Location

The street links Gdańska Street to Józef Weyssenhoff Square. Its northern frontage is a set of tenements and villas built in the first decade of the 20th century. On the southern side are located the Polish Theatre and Jan Kochanowski Park.

Adam Mickiewicz Alley

  • 1906-1920, Bülowstraße, after Bernhard von Bülow;
  • 1920-1939, Aleje Adama Mickiewicza after Adam Mickiewicz;
  • 1939-1945, Felix-Dahn-Straße, after Felix Dahn;
  • Since 1945, Aleje Adama Mickiewicza
  • Józef Weyssenhoff Square

  • 1906-1920, Bülowplatz, after Bernhard von Bülow;
  • 1920-1933, Plac Zacisze ("Tranquility Square")
  • 1933-1939, Plac Józefa Weyssenhoffa, after Józef Weyssenhoff, polish writer and literary critic, who lived at N°1 from 1924 to 1928;
  • 1939-1945, Johann Fichte Platz, after Johann Gottlieb Fichte;
  • Since 1945, Plac Józefa Weyssenhoffa.
  • Adam Mickiewicz Alley

    Adam Mickiewicz Alley has been laid out in 1903, in the conditions of an urban development of the eastern area of Gdańska Street called "Hempelscher Felde": this plot was bought in the 1890s by the municipality to develop its urban plans based on a garden city concept developed by Hermann Stübben.

    The highlight of the whole project was the Bülow street, then one of the most beautiful and widest thoroughfare of the city. It comprised a dual carriageway starting from Dantziger strasse, running eastward. The perspective was particularly taken care of, emphasized by a row of trees, with stretched garlands of vines. At the same time, the Ossolińscy street, continuation of the axis from Weyssenhoff square, was defined in its main features.

    The northern frontage of Adam Mickiewicz Alley has been conceived from 1903 to 1907 as an homogeneous complex of Berlin Art Nouveau tenements, similar to what has been erected at the same time in Dworcowa Street (N°45, 47, 49). In 1910, an addition to the frontage, consisting of villas and houses has been erected. The perspective of the street to the east has been closed by the building of the Institute of Agriculture (Ger. Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Landwirtschaft), then the first high school scientific department in Bromberg.

    In 1949, the Polish Theatre has been completed, standing at the intersection with 20 January 1920 Street. In 1960, the Archer Statue has been moved from Theatre square to Jan Kochanowski Park. Most of the facade decorations and reliefs have been deteriorated by lack of treatment during the post-war years.

    The street has undergone a gradual revitalization after 1990. Between 2002 and 2009, all street facades have been was renovated, and, when possible, restored with their original decorations.

    Józef Weyssenhoff Square

    The square was founded in 1903 in the same conditions as Adam Mickiewicz Alley. It is a triangular square from which radiate:

  • Adam Mickiewicz Alley in a north-westerwards,
  • Ossolińscy street (Ger. Hohenzzolernstrasse) to the south-east.
  • In the middle was planted flowerbeds, shrubs and trees. In 1926, coniferous and deciduous trees were put. Between 1905 an 1911, a frontage of five-story apartment buildings have been built, following Art Nouveau and Historicism styles.

    Jan Kochanowski Park

    This green estate runs on the southern side of Adam Mickiewicz Alley, between January 20, 1920 street on the west and Ignac Paderewski street on the east, extending to the south till the Pomeranian Philharmonic.

    History

    Jan Kochanowski Park has been designed by Konrad Neumann, director of Bromberg's city gardens in 1901, its original size was 2.8 hectares. Works have been carried out from 1903 to 1911, in concordance with the urban development of this area at the time. It was realized as an English garden with approximately 80 species of trees and shrubs.

    On July 31, 1927, has been held in the park the unveiling ceremony of the monument to Henryk Sienkiewicz, the first in Poland. In 1938, a park record listed 84 species of trees and shrubs. Main highlights were Scots Elms and poplars 25 meters tall, English oaks with stem circumference of 300 to 480 cm and large silver maples and Hornbeams.

    After destructions of World War II, a part of the park has been replanted. In 1952, during the construction of public toilets, 4 oaks with trunk circumference of 400 cm have been cut down. In 1958, the park area has been reduced to the south to allow the construction of Pomeranian Philharmonic building. In 1960, in the northern part of the park has been placed "The Archer", an iconical statue of the city, till then on Theatre square.

    Mid-August 2015, a complete restoration of the park, designed to highlight its historical character and relationship with the "Music District" has ended. New species have planted, such as hornbeams, birches, Douglas fir, varieties of Berberis, sea buckthorns, or lilacs. Part of this thorough renovation project was also the building of a new fountain of "Son et lumière" before the Pomeranian Philharmonic building, unveiled on May 23, 2014. The park Kochanowski and the surroundings of the Pomeranian Philharmonic building comprise 21 tree specimens listed as Polish monuments of nature.

    Naming

    Since its inception, the park bore the following names:

  • From 1910 to 1920, Bismarck Garten;
  • From 1920 to 1939, Jan Kochanowski Square;
  • From 1939 to 1945, Bismarck Garten;
  • Since 1945, Jan Kochanowski Park.
  • Monuments

    Jan Kochanowski Park of is characterised by a large number of monuments. The first one has been unveiled in 1927: first monument in Poland to Henryk Sienkiewicz, realized Konstanty Laszczka, in front of thousands people, hundreds of officials and Polish president Ignacy Mościcki. This very monument has been destroyed by Nazis in September 1939. Since 1960, the park boasts the most valuable public sculpture in Bydgoszcz, the "Archer" by Ferdinand Lepcke, considered a symbol of the city. In addition, due to the proximity of the Pomeranian Philharmonic and the Bydgoszcz Academy of Music, the park has been a show case for an outside collection of sculptures of eminent composers and virtuosos of classical music.

    In 2015, the following monuments were present in the park:

  • Sculpture "The Archer"by Ferdinand Lepcke (1910), originally placed at Theatre square;
  • Henryk Sienkiewicz monument by Stanislaw Horno-Poplawski (1969), which replaced the first one unveiled in 1927;
  • Statue of martyrdom in honor of the 50 high school students who were murdered on September 5th, 1939, by Joseph Makowski;
  • Gallery of composers and virtuosos - 15 monuments of prominent Polish and foreign composers and virtuosos of classical music;
  • Memorial to Andrew Szwalbe, by Michał Kubiak, (2007).
  • Architecture

    Frontages of Mickiewicz alley (N°1 to 9) and Józef Weyssenhoff Square compose a complex of townhouses inscribed in the German variant of Art Nouveau architecture (Ger. "Jugendstil"). Predominant forms evoke quietness, through varied bay windows, divided balconies and loggias integrating wavy lines, wavy gables, vaulted windows and portals. Decoration combines organic themes with geometric forms, like rectangular and square shapes, grouped in series and friezes. The ensemble reminds also Baroque style at by applying domes avant-corps and towers topped with peaks.

    The architects who designed those buildings were all inspired by Berlin architecture, "en vogue" at the time:

  • Rudolf Kern who built also tenements in Gdańska Street at N°5, N°67, N°66-38, N°71;
  • Erich Lindenburger who constructed also in Dworcowa Street (N°41,43,45,47);
  • Paul Böhm who realized houses on August Cieszkowski Street in Bydgoszcz at N°1 and 3;
  • Otto Rosenthal;
  • Józef Święcicki, known for its dozens of realization in Gdańska Street.
  • For almost the entire post-war period, tenements have been property of the state. In 1990, the city of Bydgoszcz owned them back, but at the time, they were falling into disrepair as a result of underinvestment, lack of maintenance and general neglect of Art Nouveau monuments. Buildings have been restored after 2002.

    Main places and buildings

    Rudolf Kern Building, at N°1, corner with Gdańska Street

    Registered on Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship heritage list, N°601377-Reg.A/1086 (November 20, 1995)

    1903-1904, by Rudolf Kern

    Art Nouveau

    The tenement has been designed by the architect Rudolf Kern, a student of Józef Święcicki, for his own use, private and business: he has lived there until 1922.



    Polish Theatre in Bydgoszcz, at N°2

    1948-1949, by Alfons Licznerski

    Modern architecture

    Hieronim Konieczka Polish Theatre in Bydgoszcz is the largest and best known theatre of the city. It is set at N°2. Current director is Paweł Wodziński.



    Tenement at N°3

    1904-1905, by Erich Lindenburger

    Art Nouveau

    Characteristic features are the ornate portal and decorative gable; the façade has pilaster strips which accentuates vertical divisions. Bay windows are divided with loggias. This building is the seat of the Honorary consulate of Czech Republic.



    House at N°4, corner with Paderewski street

    1906-1908

    Art Nouveau

    Corner house displays with highly decorated balconies and bay windows. Roof possesses eyelid dormers.



    House at N°5

    Registered on Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship heritage list, N°601378, Reg.A/1081 (December 21, 1994)

    1906, Rudolf Kern

    Art Nouveau

    Less adorned than its neighbours, this building displays anyhow the same Art Nouveau grandeur, with loggias and bay windows, as well as a curved top frontage and dormers on the gable.



    House at N°7

    Registered on Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship heritage list, N°601379, Reg.A/1082 (January 10, 1995)

    1904-1905, Rudolf Kern

    Art Nouveau

    N°7 looks like a mirrored shape of N°5, underlying the seal of the same Art Nouveau architect. Frontage adornament is much richer, with loggias, balconies and bay windows topped by helmet-style roof.



    House at N°9

    Registered on Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship heritage list, N°601380-Reg.A/855 (August 28, 1985)

    1905-1906, by Rudolf Kern

    Art Nouveau

    The house was built by Bydgoszcz architect Rudolf Kern so as to establish the first private music school in the city, the Conservatoire of Bydgoszcz (German: Bromberger Konservatorium der Musik). The school was founded in 1904 on the initiative of Arnold Schattschneider and was originally located at Gdańska Street 24, (German: Dantzigerstrasse 158). The space in the building was soon too scarce, and decision was made to build a new edifice at Adam Mickiewicz Alley, using the opportunity of the urban development of the "Hempelscher Feldethe" area. Construction lasted from December 1905 to October 1906 when an opening concert took place for the opening of the new school premises.

    The building displays Art Nouveau style, using rich decorative forms. The facade is balanced with vertical and horizontal lines as well as balconies having each their own designed railing. The main entrance had two doors: one leading to the staircase to the conservatoroire, the other going to private spaces for the landlord and the school headmaster. Inside, the school housed classrooms, instruments, an extensive library and a concert hall with Neo-Baroque features. In the concert hall was organized symphonic concerts, chamber music events, concerts of students and monthly subscription concerts. In smaller venues were classes for piano, violin, cello and choral singing. Teachers of the conservatoire came from Vienna, Dresden, Regensburg, Prague, Rome, Moscow and Warsaw, classes comprised Germans and Poles. Wilhelm von Winterfeld, second director since 1914, had the school moved in the early 1930s to larger premises at Gdańska Street, 54 (from where it moved again to Gdańska Street 71 in 1939). The interiors of the building in Adam Mickiewicz Alley have been entirely rebuilt to turn classrooms and auditorium into flats. In 2002-2004 a major renovation of the facade has been carried out, giving back to the frontage its original design that had been lost since the postwar period.

    Corner house with January 20, 1920 street

    Registered on Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship heritage list, N°601456-Reg.A/1080/1-2 (December 20, 1994)

    1905-1906

    Art Nouveau

    This corner house is characterised by its towering peak topped with a tin roof.



    Corner house with January 20, 1920 street

    1903

    Art Nouveau

    This corner house displays also a nice adorned portal.



    Villa at N°11

    1903-1904

    Art Nouveau

    One of the few villas built during the initial development of the street.



    Villas at N°13/15

    Registered on Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship heritage list, N°6601381-Reg. A/1067 (May 18, 1994)

    1903-1904

    Art Nouveau

    One of the few villas built during the initial development of the street. During the interwar period, the villa at N°15 housed a clinic run by Dr. Staemmler.



    Villa Józef Święcicki at N°17

    1906

    German Historicism

    This villa was one of the buildings Bydgoszcz's architect Józef Święcicki realized for himself (see also Józef Święcicki tenement in Bydgoszcz).

    Corner house at Paderewski street N°1

    1905-1908

    Art Nouveau

    This corner house displays typical tin roof above each of its bay windows.



    Corner house at Paderewski street N°10

    1905-1907

    Art Nouveau

    This corner house starts the series of frontages characteristic of Józef Weyssenhoff Square.



    Tenement at Józef Weyssenhoff Square N°1

    1905-1906, by Rudolf Kern

    Art Nouveau

    This is the house Józef Weyssenhoff lived in from 1924 to 1928; a plaque has been placed on the facade in memoriam. Both facades display bay windows with loggias or balconies. A richly decorated frieze run at the bottom of the gable boasting dormers.



    Tenement at Józef Weyssenhoff Square N°3

    1905-1910, by Erich Lindenburger

    Art Nouveau



    Tenement at Józef Weyssenhoff Square N°5

    Registered on Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship heritage list, N°743201-Reg.A/1573 (October 29, 2010)

    1908-1909, by Paul Böhm

    Art Nouveau

    The facade display 3 levels of balconies. The building has been recently refurbished.



    Tenement at Józef Weyssenhoff Square N°7

    1909-1910

    Art Nouveau

    The facade is characterised by a balanced, even symmetry around the large arcade running above the entry gate. This round motif is recurrent through the whole frontage, from the ground level arcades up to the curved pediment.



    Tenement at Józef Weyssenhoff Square N°9

    Registered on Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship heritage list, N°725836-Reg.A/1522 (March 20, 2009)

    1910-1911, by Georg Baesler

    Art Nouveau



    Building of the Institute of Agriculture

    Registered on Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship heritage list, N°601254-Reg.A/676/1-8 (May 20, 1992)

    Józef Weyssenhoff Square N°11

    1903-1906, by H. Delius

    Eclecticism

    The architectural ensemble of the Institutes of Agriculture in Bydgoszcz occupies an area of 7.5 hectares, between J. Weyssenhoff Square, Ossolińsky Alley, Powstańców Wielkopolskich Alley and Karol Szymanowski Street. The western area is laid out with buildings, the eastern one is a 5 ha zone of field vegetation, with livestock, greenhouses and a barn.

    References

    Adam Mickiewicz Alley Wikipedia


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