Abraham (Adolf) Berliner (May 2, 1833 – April 21, 1915) (Hebrew: אברהם ברלינר) was a German theologian and historian, born in Obersitzko, in the Grand Duchy of Posen, Prussia. He received his first education under his father, who was teacher in Obersitzko. He continued his education under various rabbis, preparing himself at the same time for the University of Leipzig, where he received the degree of doctor of philosophy.
After serving for some time as preacher and teacher in Arnswalde, Berliner was called (1865) to Berlin as superintendent of the religious school maintained by the society for Talmudic studies (Ḥebrat Shas), and in 1873, when Israel Hildesheimer opened the rabbinical seminary in Berlin, Berliner was elected professor of Jewish history and literature. In this position, as well as in that of author, he has displayed an untiring activity. His edition of Rashi's commentary to the Pentateuch (1866) first made him known as a scholar; he added to his reputation by various historical works, the result of his studies in the archives and libraries of Italy, which country he frequently visited, subventioned by the German government.
Berliner edited for two years (1874–75) the scientific periodical Magazin für Jüdische Geschichte und Literatur, which from 1876 to 1893 he, together with his colleague, David Hoffmann, continued under the title Magazin für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums. It was due to his zeal that the society Meḳiẓe Nirdamim, for the publication of works of the older Jewish literature, which had been discontinued for several years, was revived in 1885 with Berliner as its director. He further acted as the apologist of Judaism in a pamphlet against Lagarde (Prof. Paul de Lagarde, nach Seiner Natur Gezeichnet, 1887), who denounced all Jewish scholars as dilettanti; and when the blood accusation was revived, he republished (1888) the opinion of Cardinal Ganganelli—afterward Pope Clement XIV—to prove the falsity of this charge.
While orthodox in his religious views, Berliner was never a fanatic. He not only associated in his scientific work with the liberals, but also paid a high tribute to the merits of Moritz Steinschneider on the occasion of the latter's seventieth birthday (1886), by compiling a bibliography of that eminent scholar's works.
The following is a list of Berliner's works:Raschi, Commentar zum Pentateuch, 1866
Aus dem Inneren Leben der Deutschen Juden im Mittelalter, 1871; 2d ed., 1900
Pleṭat Soferim: Beiträge zur Jüdischen Schriftauslegung im Mittelalter, 1872
Yesod 'Olam, das Aelteste Bekannte Dramatische Gedicht in Hebr. Sprache, von Mose Sacut, 1874
Die Massorah zum Targum Onkelos, 1875, 1877
Migdal Ḥananel, Ueber Leben und Schriften R. Chananel's in Kairuan, 1876
Ein Gang Durch die Bibliotheken Italiens, 1877
Rabbi Jesaja Berlin: Eine Biographische Skizze, 1879
Beiträge zur Hebräischen Grammatik im Talmud und Midrasch, 1879
Hebräische Grabschriften in Italien, 1881
Persönliche Beziehungen Zwischen Juden und Christen im Mittelalter, 1882
Beiträge zur Geographie und Ethnographie Babyloniens im Talmud und Midrasch, 1884
Targum Onkelos (now the standard edition), 1884
Aus den Letzten Tagen des Römischen Ghetto, 1886
Censur und Confiscation Hebräischer Bücher im Kirchenstaate, 1891
Geschichte der Juden in Rom, von der Aeltesten Zeit bis zur Gegenwart (2050 Jahre), 3 vols., 1893
Ueber den Einfluss des Ersten Hebräischen Buchdrucks auf den Cultus und die Cultur der Juden, 1896
Aus Meiner Bibliothek, Ein Beitrag zur Bibliographie und Typographie, 1898.