| CA: Schedule II
DE: Anlage II (Prohibited)
NZ: Temporary Class
US: Schedule I
Illegal in Japan, Latvia, Singapore|
AKB48 (APINACA, N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide) is a drug that acts as a reasonably potent agonist for the cannabinoid receptors, with a Ki of 304.5nM and a EC50 of 585nM at CB1. It had never previously been reported in the scientific or patent literature, and was first identified by laboratories in Japan in March 2012 as an ingredient in synthetic cannabis smoking blends, along with a related compound APICA. Structurally it closely resembles cannabinoid compounds from patent WO 2003/035005 but with a simple pentyl chain on the indazole 1-position, and AKB48 falls within the claims of this patent despite not being disclosed as an example.
APINACA was made illegal in Japan in 2012, and was banned as a temporary class drug in New Zealand from 13 July 2012.
APINACA has been banned in Latvia since 14 November 2013.
The DEA announced its intent to schedule APINACA on 16 May 2013.
It is also banned in Germany as an Anlage II controlled drug.
APINACA is listed in the Fifth Schedule of the Misuse of Drugs Act (MDA) and therefore illegal in Singapore as of May 2015.
As of October 2015 APINACA is a controlled substance in China.
APINACA is banned in the Czech Republic.
A forensic standard of APINACA is available, and the compound has been posted on the Forendex website of potential drugs of abuse.