Supriya Ghosh

AIM2

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Species  Human
Entrez  9447
Human  Mouse
Ensembl  ENSG00000163568
AIM2
Aliases  AIM2, PYHIN4, absent in melanoma 2
External IDs  MGI: 2686159 HomoloGene: 83226 GeneCards: AIM2

Interferon-inducible protein AIM2 also known as absent in melanoma 2 or simply AIM2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AIM2 gene. Recent research has shown that AIM2 is part of the inflammasome and contributes to the defence against bacterial and viral DNA.

Contents

Structure

AIM2 is a 343 amino acid protein with a N-terminal DAPIN (or pyrin) domain (amino acids 1-87) and a C-terminal HIN-200 domain (amino acids 138-337), which is known to have two oligonucleotide-binding folds.

Function

AIM2 is a member of the Ifi202/IFI16 family. It plays a putative role in tumorigenic reversion and may control cell proliferation. Interferon-gamma induces expression of AIM2.

Though there has been virtually no biochemistry performed, a model based on cell-based or in vivo experiments has led to the current model of how AIM2 triggers the inflammasome. The C-terminal HIN domain binds double stranded DNA (either viral, bacterial, or even host) and acts as a cytosolic dsDNA sensor. This leads to the oligomerization of the inflammasome complex. The N-terminal pyrin domain of AIM2 interacts with the pyrin domain of another protein ASC (or Apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain). ASC also contains a CARD domain (caspase activation and recruitment domain), that recruits procaspase-1 to the complex. This leads to the autoactivation of caspase-1, an enzyme that processes proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1b and IL-18). AIM2 inflammasome is activated by pharmacological disruption of nuclear envelope integrity.

Clinical relevance

Elevated levels of AIM2 expression are found in skin cells from people with psoriasis.

References

AIM2 Wikipedia


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