A type proanthocyanidins are a specific type of proanthocyanidins, which are a class of flavanoid. Proanthocyanidins fall under a wide range of names in the nutritional and scientific vernacular, including oligomeric proanthocyanidins, flavanoids, polyphenols, condensed tannins, and OPCs. Proanthocyanidins were first popularized by French scientist Jacques Masquelier.
A-type proanthocyanidin Wikipedia
A-type linkage is a less common feature in proanthocyanidins with both 4β→8 (B-type) and 2β→O→7 interflavanoid bonds.
A-type proanthocyanidin glycosides can be isolated from cocoa liquor.Procyanidin A1 is an epicatechin-(2β→7,4β→8)-epicatechin dimer.
Procyanidin A2 is a dimeric (-)epicatechin.
Other A-type proanthocyanidins can be found in cranberries, cinnamon, peanut skins and Geranium niveum.
B-type procyanidins (catechin dimers) can be converted to A-type procyanidins by radical oxidation. Fragmentation patterns for A-type proanthocyanidins include heterocyclic ring fission (HRF), retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) fission, benzofuran-forming fission (BFF) and quinone methide fission (QM).
The metabolism of type-A proanthocyanidins is significant since a large number of metabolites are detected in urine and feces soon after ingestion of foods rich in polymers, indicating rapid elimination and absence of physiological effect. Polymeric type-A proanthocyanidins are depolymerized into epicatechin units in the small intestine, then cleaved into smaller phenolic acids with no known biological role.
In vitro, A-type proanthocyanidins isolated from cranberry juice cocktail demonstrated anti-adhesion activity against E. coli binding to urinary tract epithelial cells, whereas B-type proanthocyanidins from grape exhibited minor activity. However, in humans, there is no sufficient clinical evidence that cranberry type-A proanthocyanidins are effective in lowering risk of urinary tract infection.