Trisha Shetty (Editor)

95th United States Congress

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Covid-19
Senate Pres. pro tem:  James Eastland (D)
Senate Majority:  Democratic
House Speaker:  Tip O'Neill (D)
House Majority:  Democratic
95th United States Congress
Senate President  Nelson Rockefeller (R) until January 20, 1977 Walter Mondale (D) from January 20, 1977
Members:  100 Senators 435 Representatives 5 Non-voting members

The Ninety-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1977 to January 3, 1979, during the first two years of the administration of U.S. President Jimmy Carter.

Contents

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Nineteenth Census of the United States in 1970. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. It was the first time either party held a filibuster-proof 60% super majority in both the Senate and House chambers since the 89th United States Congress in 1965, and last time until the 111th United States Congress in 2009. All three super majorities were Democratic party and also were accompanied by Democratic Presidents. As of 2015, this is the most recent Congress to approve an amendment (the unratified District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment) to the Constitution.

Major events

  • January 20, 1977: Inauguration of President Jimmy Carter and Vice President Walter Mondale
  • July 13, 1977: New York City blackout of 1977
  • January 1, 1978: The Northern Mariana Islands left the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to become a Commonwealth of the United States, making it unincorporated and organized.
  • February 8, 1978: Senate proceedings are broadcast on radio for the first time.
  • August 7, 1978: Love Canal Disaster
  • September 17, 1978: Camp David Accords
  • Hearings

  • Project MKULTRA — (Church Committee, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Senate Human Resources subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research)
  • Major legislation

  • August 3, 1977: Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, Pub.L. 95–87, 91 Stat. 445
  • August 4, 1977: Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, Pub.L. 95–91, 91 Stat. 565
  • October 12, 1977: Community Reinvestment Act, Pub.L. 95–128, title VIII, 91 Stat. 1147
  • November 23, 1977: Saccharin Study and Labeling Act of 1977, Pub.L. 95–203, 91 Stat. 1451
  • December 27, 1977: Clean Water Act, Pub.L. 95–217, 91 Stat. 1566
  • December 28, 1977: International Emergency Economic Powers Act, Pub.L. 95–223, title II, 91 Stat. 1626
  • March 10, 1978: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, Pub.L. 95–242, 92 Stat. 120
  • October 10, 1978: Susan B. Anthony Dollar Coin Act of 1979, Pub.L. 95–447, 92 Stat. 1072
  • October 13, 1978: Civil Service Reform Act, Pub.L. 95–454, 92 Stat. 1111
  • October 24, 1978: Airline Deregulation Act, Pub.L. 95–504, 92 Stat. 1705
  • October 25, 1978: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, Pub.L. 95–511, 92 Stat. 1783
  • October 26, 1978: Ethics in Government Act, Pub.L. 95–521, 92 Stat. 1824
  • October 27, 1978: Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment Act, Pub.L. 95–523, 92 Stat. 1887
  • October 31, 1978: Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Pub.L. 95–555, 92 Stat. 2076
  • November 1, 1978: Contract Disputes Act, Pub.L. 95–563, 92 Stat. 2383
  • November 4, 1978: Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978, Pub.L. 95–590, 92 Stat. 2513
  • November 6, 1978: Bankruptcy Act of 1978, Pub.L. 95–598, 92 Stat. 2549
  • November 8, 1978: Indian Child Welfare Act, Pub.L. 95–608, 92 Stat. 3069
  • November 9, 1978: National Energy Conservation Policy Act, Pub.L. 95–619, 92 Stat. 3206
  • Approved Constitutional amendments

  • August 22, 1978: District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment (unratified; ratification period expired in 1985)
  • Treaties ratified

  • March 16, 1978: First of the Torrijos-Carter Treaties (Panama Canal) treaty: "The Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal," commonly known as the "Neutrality Treaty"
  • April 19, 1978: Second of the Torrijos-Carter Treaties treaty, commonly known as "The Panama Canal Treaty"
  • Senate

  • President of the Senate: Nelson Rockefeller (R), until January 20, 1977
  • Walter Mondale (D), from January 20, 1977
  • President pro tempore: James Eastland (D)
  • Permanent Acting President pro tempore: Lee Metcalf (D), until January 12, 1978
  • Deputy President pro tempore: Hubert Humphrey (D), until January 13, 1978
  • Majority (Democratic) leadership

  • Majority Leader: Robert Byrd
  • Majority Whip: Alan Cranston
  • Caucus Secretary: Daniel Inouye
  • Campaign Committee Chairman: Wendell H. Ford
  • Minority (Republican) leadership

  • Minority Leader: Howard Baker
  • Minority Whip: Ted Stevens
  • Republican Conference Chairman: Carl Curtis
  • Republican Conference Secretary: Clifford Hansen
  • National Senatorial Committee Chair: Bob Packwood
  • Policy Committee Chairman: John Tower
  • House of Representatives

  • Speaker: Tip O'Neill (D)
  • Majority (Democratic) leadership

  • Majority Leader: Jim Wright
  • Majority Whip: John Brademas
  • Chief Deputy Majority Whip: Dan Rostenkowski
  • Democratic Caucus Chairman: Tom Foley
  • Caucus Secretary: Shirley Chisholm
  • Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: James C. Corman
  • Minority (Republican) leadership

  • Minority Leader: John Jacob Rhodes
  • Minority Whip: Robert H. Michel
  • Conference Chair: John B. Anderson
  • Conference Vice-Chair: Samuel L. Devine
  • Conference Secretary: Jack Edwards
  • Policy Committee Chairman: Del M. Clawson
  • Campaign Committee Chairman: Guy Vander Jagt
  • Caucuses

  • Congressional Black Caucus
  • Congressional Hispanic Caucus
  • Congressional Caucus for Women's Issues
  • House Democratic Caucus
  • House of Representatives

    Members of the House of Representatives elected statewide at-large, are preceded by "At-large," and the names of those elected from districts, are preceded by their district numbers.

    Many of the congressional district numbers are linked to articles describing the district itself. Since the boundaries of the districts have changed often and substantially, the linked article may only describe the district as it exists today, and not as it was at the time of this Congress.

    Changes in Membership

    The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

    Senate

  • replacements: 11
  • Democratic: 3 seat net loss
  • Republican: 3 seat net gain
  • deaths: 4
  • resignations: 5
  • vacancy:
  • Total seats with changes: 9
  • House of Representatives

  • replacements: 6
  • Democratic: 4 seat net loss
  • Republican: 4 seat net gain
  • deaths: 6
  • resignations: 21
  • contested election:
  • Total seats with changes: 25
  • Committees

    Lists of committees and their party leaders.

    Senate

  • Aging (Special) (Chair: Frank Church)
  • Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry (Chair: Herman Talmadge)
  • Environment, Soil Conservation and Forestry
  • Agricultural Credit and Rural Electrification
  • Agricultural Production, Marketing and Stabilization of Prices
  • Agricultural Research and General Legislation
  • Rural Development
  • Foreign Agricultural Policy
  • Nutrition
  • Appropriations (Chair: Warren Magnuson)
  • Agriculture and Related Agencies
  • Defense
  • District of Columbia
  • Foreign Operations
  • HUD-Independent Agencies
  • Interior
  • Labor, Health, Education and Welfare
  • Legislative
  • Military Construction
  • Public Works
  • State, Justice, Commerce and the Judiciary
  • Transportation
  • Treasury, Postal Service and General Government
  • Armed Services (Chair: John C. Stennis)
  • Intelligence
  • General Procurement
  • Military Construction and Stockfiles
  • Arms Control
  • Tactical Aircraft
  • Research and Development
  • General Legislation
  • Manpower and Personnel
  • Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs (Chair: William Proxmire)
  • Federal Credit Programs
  • Housing and Urban Affairs
  • Financial Institutions
  • Securities
  • International Finance
  • Production and Stabilization
  • Consumer Affairs
  • Rural Housing
  • Budget (Chair: Edmund Muskie)
  • Commerce, Science and Transportation (Chair: Howard Cannon)
  • Aviation
  • Communications
  • Consumer
  • Merchant Marine and Tourism
  • Science, Technology and Space
  • Surface Transportation
  • Energy and Natural Resources (Chair: Henry M. Jackson)
  • Public Lands and Resources
  • Parks and Recreation
  • Energy Production and Supply
  • Energy Conservation and Regulation
  • Energy R&D
  • Environment and Public Works (Chair: Jennings Randolph)
  • Environmental Pollution
  • Water Resources
  • Transportation
  • Regional and Community Development
  • Nuclear Regulation
  • Ethics (Select) (Chair: Adlai Stevenson III)
  • Finance (Chair: Russell B. Long)
  • Health
  • International Trade
  • Taxation and Debt Management Generally
  • Social Security
  • Energy and Foundations
  • Private Pension Plans and Employee Fringe Benefits
  • Unemployment Compensation, Revenue Sharing and Economic Problems
  • Administration of the Internal Revenue Code
  • Tourism and Sugar
  • Public Assistance
  • Foreign Relations (Chair: John Sparkman)
  • European Affairs
  • East Asian and Pacific Affairs
  • International Operations
  • Foreign Economic Policy
  • Arms Control, Oceans and International Environment
  • Western Hemisphere Affairs
  • Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs
  • Foreign Assistance
  • African Affairs
  • Governmental Affairs (Chair: Abraham A. Ribicoff)
  • Investigations
  • Intergovernmental Relations
  • Reports, Accounting and Management
  • Governmental Efficiency and the District of Columbia
  • Federal Spending Practices and Open Government
  • Energy, Nuclear Proliferation and Federal Services
  • Civil Service and General Services
  • Human Resources (Chair: Harrison A. Williams)
  • Labor
  • Handicapped
  • Education, Arts and Humanities
  • Employment, Poverty and Migratory Labor
  • Health and Scientific Research
  • Aging
  • Child and Human Development
  • Alcoholism and Drug Abuse
  • Indian Affairs (Select) (Chair: James Abourezk)
  • Judiciary (Chair: James Eastland)
  • Intelligence (Select) (Chair: Daniel Inouye)
  • Nutrition and Human Needs (Select)
  • Rules and Administration (Chair: Howard Cannon, then Claiborne Pell)
  • Senate Committee System (Special)
  • Small Business (Select) (Chair: Gaylord Nelson)
  • Veterans' Affairs (Chair: Alan Cranston)
  • Compensation and Pensions
  • Health and Readjustment
  • Housing, Insurance and Cemeteries
  • Whole
  • House of Representatives

  • Aging (Select) (Chair: Claude Pepper)
  • Agriculture (Chair: Tom Foley)
  • Livestock and Grains
  • Tobacco
  • Cotton
  • Dairy and Poultry
  • Family Farms and Rural Development
  • Oilseeds and Rice
  • Tobacco
  • Conservation and Credit
  • Department, Investigations, Oversight and Research
  • Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations and Nutrition
  • Family Farms, Rural Development and Special Studies
  • Appropriations (Chair: George H. Mahon)
  • Agriculture and Related Agencies
  • Defense
  • District of Columbia
  • Foreign Operations
  • HUD-Independent Agencies
  • Interior
  • Labor-Health, Education and Welfare
  • Legislative
  • Military Construction
  • Public Works
  • State, Justice, Commerce and Judiciary
  • Transportation
  • Treasury, Postal Service and General Government
  • Armed Services (Chair: Charles Melvin Price)
  • Intelligence and Military Application of Nuclear Energy
  • Research and Development
  • Seapower, Strategic and Critical Materials
  • Investigations
  • Military Installations and Facilities
  • Military Personnel
  • Military Compensation
  • Assassinations (Select) (Chair: Henry B. Gonzalez)
  • Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs (Chair: Henry S. Reuss)
  • The City
  • Housing and Community and Development
  • Economic Stabilization
  • Financial Institutions Supervision, Regulation and Insurance
  • International Development Institutions and Finance
  • General Oversight and Renegotiation
  • Consumer Affairs
  • Domestic Monetary Policy
  • Historic Preservation and Coinage
  • International Trade, Investment and Monetary Policy
  • Budget (Chair: Robert Giaimo)
  • Task Forces
  • Budget Process
  • Economic Policy
  • Tax Expenditures, Government Organization and Regulation
  • Distributive Impacts of Budget and Economic Policies
  • National Security
  • Human Resources
  • Community and Physical Resources
  • State and Local Government
  • Crime (Select)
  • District of Columbia (Chair: Charles Diggs)
  • Fiscal and Government Affairs
  • Judiciary
  • Economic Development
  • Education and Labor (Chair: Carl D. Perkins)
  • Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Education
  • Labor-Management Relations
  • Labor Standards
  • Select Education
  • Employment Opportunites
  • Postsecondary Education
  • Compensation, Health and Safety
  • Economic Opportunity
  • Ethics (Select)
  • Government Operations (Chair: Jack Brooks)
  • Legislation and National Security
  • Intergovernmental Relations and Human Resources
  • Commerce, Consumer and Monetary Affairs
  • Environment, Energy and Natural Resources
  • Manpower and Housing
  • Government Activities and Transportation
  • Government Information and Individual Rights
  • House Administration (Chair: Frank Thompson)
  • Accounts
  • Libraries and Memorials
  • Printing
  • Personnel and Police
  • Contracts
  • Services
  • Office Systems
  • House Beauty Shop (Select)
  • Intelligence (Select) (Chair: Edward Boland)
  • Insular Affairs (Chair: Mo Udall)
  • Energy and the Environment
  • General Oversight and Alaska Lands
  • Mines and Mining
  • National Parks and Insular Affairs
  • Indian Affairs and Public Lands
  • Special Investigations
  • Water and Power Resources
  • International Relations (Chair: Clement J. Zablocki)
  • International Security and Scientific Affairs
  • International Operations
  • Africa
  • International Organizations
  • Europe and the Middle East
  • Asian and Pacific Affairs
  • International Economic Policy and Trade
  • Interstate and Foreign Commerce (Chair: Harley Orrin Staggers)
  • International Security and Scientific Affairs
  • Oversight and Investigations
  • Energy and Power
  • Health and the Environment
  • Communications
  • Transportation and Commerce
  • Consumer Protection and Finance
  • Judiciary (Chair: Peter W. Rodino)
  • Immigration, Citizenship and International Law
  • Administrative Law and Governmental Relations
  • Courts, Civil Liberties and the Administration of Justice
  • Civil and Constitutional Rights
  • Monopolies and Commercial Law
  • Crime
  • Criminal Justice
  • Merchant Marine and Fisheries (Chair: John M. Murphy)
  • Merchant Marine
  • Fisheries, Wildlife Conservation and the Environment
  • Coast Guard and Navigation
  • Oceangraphy
  • Panama Canal
  • Maritime Education and Training (Ad Hoc)
  • Modernization of House Gallery Facilities (Special)
  • Narcotics Abuse and Control (Select)
  • Outer Continental Shelf (Ad Hoc/Select)
  • Post Office and Civil Service
  • Employee Ethics and Utilization
  • Civil Service
  • Investigations
  • Compensations and Employee Benefits
  • Postal Operations and Services
  • Census and Population
  • Postal Personnel and Modernization
  • Public Works and Transportation (Chair: Harold T. Johnson)
  • Aviation
  • Economic Development
  • Investigations and Review
  • Public Buildings and Grounds
  • Surface Transportation
  • Water Resources
  • Rules (Chair: James J. Delaney)
  • Science and Technology (Chair: Olin E. Teague)
  • Space Science and Applications
  • Fossil and Energy Research, Development and Demonstration
  • Advanced Energy Technologies, Energy Conservation, Development and Demonstration
  • Environment and the Atmosphere
  • Transportation, Aviation and Weather
  • Science, Research and Technology
  • Domestic and International Scientific Planning, Analysis and Cooperation
  • Small Business
  • SBA and SBIC Authority and General Small Business
  • Minority Enterprise and General Oversight
  • Antitrust and Restraint of Trade Activities Affecting Small Business
  • Energy, Environment, Safety and Research
  • Capital Investment and Business Opportunities
  • Special Small Business Problems
  • Standards of Official Conduct (Chair: L. Richardson Preyer)
  • Veterans' Affairs (Chair: Ray Roberts)
  • Compensation, Pension and Insurance
  • Education and Training
  • Medical Facilities and Benefits
  • Housing
  • Cemeteries and Burial Benefits
  • Ways and Means (Chair: Al Ullman)
  • Social Security
  • Health
  • Trade
  • Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation
  • Oversight
  • Miscellaneous Revenue Measures
  • Whole
  • Joint committees

  • Atomic Energy
  • Congressional Operations
  • Defense Productions
  • Economic
  • Taxation
  • Library
  • Printing
  • Legislative branch agency directors

  • Architect of the Capitol: George M. White
  • Attending Physician of the United States Congress: Freeman H. Cary
  • Comptroller General of the United States: Elmer B. Staats
  • Director of the Congressional Budget Office: Alice M. Rivlin
  • Librarian of Congress: Daniel J. Boorstin
  • Public Printer of the United States: Thomas F. McCormick (until 1977), John J. Boyle (starting 1977)
  • Senate

  • Chaplain: Edward L.R. Elson
  • Historian: Richard A. Baker
  • Parliamentarian: Murray Zweben
  • Secretary: Francis R. Valeo (until March 31, 1977) J. Stanley Kimmitt (starting March 31, 1977)
  • Sergeant at Arms: Frank Hoffmann
  • Secretary for the Majority: Howard O. Greene, Jr.
  • Secretary for the Minority: Walter J. Stewart
  • House of Representatives

  • Chaplain: Edward G. Latch
  • Clerk: Edmund L. Henshaw, Jr.
  • Doorkeeper: James T. Molloy
  • Parliamentarian: William Holmes Brown
  • Postmaster: Robert V. Rota
  • Sergeant at Arms: Kenneth R. Harding
  • References

    95th United States Congress Wikipedia


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