Rahul Sharma (Editor)

84th United States Congress

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Senate President  Richard Nixon (R)
House Speaker:  Sam Rayburn (D)
House Majority:  Democratic
Senate Pres. pro tem:  Walter F. George (D)
Senate Majority:  Democratic
84th United States Congress
Members:  96 Senators 435 Representatives 3 Non-voting members

The Eighty-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1955 to January 3, 1957, during the third and fourth years of Dwight Eisenhower's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventeenth Census of the United States in 1950. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. It is the earliest Congress with a surviving member, former Michigan Representative John Dingell. Members of the first eighty-three Congresses are all deceased.


Major events

  • January 28, 1955: Congress authorized the President to use force to protect Taiwan from the People's Republic of China
  • February 10, 1955: The United States Navy helped the Republic of China evacuate Chinese Nationalist army and residents from the Tachen Islands to Taiwan.
  • February 12, 1955: President Eisenhower sent the first U.S. advisers to South Vietnam.
  • September 24, 1955: President Eisenhower suffered a coronary thrombosis.
  • November 5, 1955: Racial segregation was forbidden on trains and buses in U.S. interstate commerce.
  • December 1, 1955: Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on the bus to a white person.
  • December 5, 1955: The American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations merged to become the AFL-CIO.
  • March 12, 1956: 96 Congressmen signed the Southern Manifesto, a protest against the 1954 Supreme Court ruling (Brown v. Board of Education) desegregating public education.
  • November 6, 1956: United States elections, 1956:
  • United States presidential election, 1956: Republican incumbent Dwight D. Eisenhower defeated Democratic challenger Adlai E. Stevenson in a rematch of their contest four years earlier.
  • United States Senate elections, 1956: The party balance of the chamber remained unchanged as Republican and Democratic gains cancelled each other.
  • United States House of Representatives elections, 1956: Republicans lost a net of two seats to the majority Democrats.
  • Major legislation

  • January 29, 1955: Formosa Resolution
  • March 31, 1955: Career Incentive Act
  • June 28, 1955: Flood Control and Coastal Emergency Act, Pub.L. 84–99, 69 Stat. 194
  • July 11, 1955: To provide that all United States currency shall bear the inscription "In God We Trust", Pub.L. 84–140, 69 Stat. 290, 31 U.S.C. § 5114(b)
  • July 14, 1955: Air Pollution Control Act, Pub.L. 84–159, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322
  • July 23, 1955: Multiple Surface Use Mining Act, Pub.L. 94–167, ch. 730, 68 Stat. 708
  • August 9, 1955: Reserve Forces Act, Pub.L. 84–305, 69 Stat. 598
  • August 11, 1955: National Housing Act ("Capehart Act"), Pub.L. 84–345, 69 Stat. 646
  • August 12, 1955: Poliomyelitis Vaccination Assistance Act, Pub.L. 84–377, ch. 863, 69 Stat. 704
  • June 29, 1956: Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, (National Interstate and Defense Highways Act), Pub.L. 84–627
  • July 30, 1956: Health Research Facilities Act, Pub.L. 84–835, ch. 779, 70 Stat. 717
  • August 8, 1956: Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956, ch. 1036, 70 Stat. 1119, 16 U.S.C. § 742a
  • Party summary

    The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

    House of Representatives

  • Democratic: 232 (majority)
  • Republican: 203
  • TOTAL: 435


  • President of the Senate: Richard Nixon (R)
  • President pro tempore: Walter F. George (D)
  • Majority (Democratic) leadership

  • Majority Leader and Democratic Conference chairman: Lyndon B. Johnson
  • Majority Whip: Earle C. Clements
  • Caucus Secretary: Thomas C. Hennings Jr.
  • Minority (Republican) leadership

  • Minority Leader: William F. Knowland
  • Minority Whip: Leverett Saltonstall
  • Republican Conference chairman: Eugene Millikin
  • Republican Conference Secretary: Milton Young
  • National Senatorial Committee Chair: Barry Goldwater
  • Policy Committee Chairman: Styles Bridges
  • House of Representatives

  • Speaker: Sam Rayburn (D)
  • Majority (Democratic) leadership

  • Majority Leader: John William McCormack
  • Majority Whip: Carl Albert
  • Democratic Caucus chairman: John J. Rooney
  • Caucus Secretary: Edna F. Kelly
  • Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Michael J. Kirwan
  • Minority (Republican) leadership

  • Minority Leader: Joseph William Martin, Jr.
  • Minority Whip: Leslie C. Arends
  • Republican Conference chairman: Clifford R. Hope
  • Caucuses

  • House Democratic Caucus
  • Members

    This list is arranged by chamber, then by state.


    Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1958; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1960; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1956.

    House of Representatives

    The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

    Changes in membership

    The count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress.


  • Replacements: 3
  • Democratic: 1 net loss
  • Independent Democratic: 1 net loss
  • Republican: 2 net gain
  • Deaths: 2
  • Resignations: 1
  • Interim appointments: 3
  • Total seats with changes: 3
  • House of Representatives

  • Replacements: 5
  • Democratic: no net change
  • Republican: no net change
  • Deaths: 9
  • Resignations: 3
  • Total seats with changes: 12
  • Committees

    Lists of committees and their party leaders.


  • Agriculture and Forestry
  • Appropriations
  • Banking and Currency
  • Contribution Investigation (Select)
  • District of Columbia
  • Finance
  • Foreign Relations
  • Foreign Aid Program (Special)
  • Government Operations
  • Interior and Insular Affairs
  • Interstate and Foreign Commerce
  • Judiciary
  • Labor and Public Welfare
  • Political Activities, Lobbying and Campaign Contributions (Special)
  • Post Office and Civil Service
  • Public Works
  • Senate Reception Room (Special)
  • Small Business (Select)
  • Subcommittee on Internal Security
  • Whole
  • House of Representatives

  • Agriculture
  • Appropriations
  • Banking and Currency
  • Benefits for Dependents of Armed Services Veterans (Select)
  • Defense Production
  • District of Columbia
  • Education and Labor
  • Foreign Affairs
  • House Administration
  • Government Operations
  • Interior and Insular Affairs
  • Merchant Marine and Fisheries
  • Post Office and Civil Service
  • Public Works
  • Rules
  • Small Business (Select)
  • Standards of Official Conduct
  • Un-American Activities
  • Veterans' Affairs
  • Ways and Means
  • Whole
  • Joint committees

  • Atomic Energy
  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Construction of a Building for a Museum of History and Technology for the Smithsonian
  • Defense Production
  • Disposition of Executive Papers
  • Economic
  • Immigration and Nationality Policy
  • Legislative Budget
  • The Library
  • Navajo-Hopi Indian Administration
  • Printing
  • Reduction of Nonessential Federal Expenditures
  • Taxation
  • Legislative branch agency directors

  • Architect of the Capitol: J. George Stewart, appointed October 1, 1954
  • Attending Physician of the United States Congress: George Calver
  • Comptroller General of the United States: Joseph Campbell
  • Librarian of Congress: Lawrence Quincy Mumford
  • Public Printer of the United States: Raymond Blattenberger
  • Senate

  • Chaplain: Frederick Brown Harris, Methodist
  • Parliamentarian: Charles Watkins
  • Secretary: Felton McLellan Johnston
  • Sergeant at Arms: Joseph C. Duke
  • House of Representatives

  • Clerk: Ralph R. Roberts of Indiana
  • Sergeant at Arms: Zeake W. Johnson, Jr. of Tennessee, elected January 5, 1955
  • Doorkeeper: William M. Miller of Mississippi, elected January 5, 1955
  • Postmaster: H. H. Morris of Kentucky, elected January 5, 1955
  • Messenger to the Speaker: Lewis Deschler
  • Chaplain: Bernard Braskamp (Presbyterian)
  • References

    84th United States Congress Wikipedia

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