Samiksha Jaiswal (Editor)

80th United States Congress

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Covid-19
Senate President  Vacant
House Majority:  Republican
Senate Majority:  Republican
80th United States Congress
Senate Pres. pro tem:  Arthur H. Vandenberg (R)
House Speaker:  Joseph William Martin, Jr. (R)
Members:  96 Senators 435 Representatives 3 Non-voting members

The Eightieth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1947 to January 3, 1949, during the third and fourth years of Harry S. Truman's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Sixteenth Census of the United States in 1940. Republicans gained a majority in both chambers for this Congress having gained thirteen Senate seats and fifty-seven House seats. Although the 80th Congress passed a total of 906 public bills, President Truman nicknamed it the "Do Nothing Congress" and, during the 1948 election, campaigned as much against it as against his formal opponent, Thomas Dewey. The 80th Congress passed several significant pro-business bills, most famously the Taft–Hartley Act, but it opposed most of Truman's Fair Deal bills. Truman's campaign strategy worked, and the Republicans lost nine Senate seats and seventy-three seats in the House, allowing the Democrats to begin the 81st Congress with twenty-one more seats than they had had at the end of the 79th Congress.

Contents

Major events

  • January 3, 1947: Proceedings of Congress were televised for the first time.
  • March 12, 1947: In a Joint Session of Congress, President Truman proclaimed the Truman Doctrine.
  • July 18, 1947: The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands entered into a trusteeship with the United Nations and administered by the United States.
  • July 20, 1947: President Truman issued the second peacetime military draft in the United States amid increasing tensions with the Soviet Union.
  • November 24, 1947: The House of Representatives approved citations of contempt of Congress against the so-called Hollywood 10.
  • July 26, 1948: President Truman signed Executive Order 9981, ending racial segregation in the United States Armed Forces.
  • August 25, 1948: House Un-American Activities Committee held the first-ever televised congressional hearing: "Confrontation Day" between Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss.
  • November 2, 1948: United States general elections, 1948:
  • Presidential election: Harry Truman defeated Thomas Dewey, Henry A. Wallace, and Strom Thurmond;
  • Democrats regained control of the Senate and the House of Representatives
  • Major legislation

  • May 22, 1947: Assistance to Greece and Turkey Act (Truman Doctrine), Sess. 1, ch. 81, Pub.L. 80–75, 61 Stat. 103
  • June 23, 1947: Taft–Hartley Act, Sess. 1, ch. 120, Pub.L. 80–101, 61 Stat. 136
  • July 18, 1947: Presidential Succession Act, Sess. 1, ch. 264, Pub.L. 80–199, 61 Stat. 380
  • July 26, 1947: National Security Act of 1947, Sess. 1, ch. 343, Pub.L. 80–253, 61 Stat. 495
  • August 7, 1947: Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands, Sess. 1, ch. 513, Pub.L. 80–382, 61 Stat. 913
  • January 27, 1948: United States Information and Educational Exchange Act, Sess. 2, ch. 36, Pub.L. 80–402, 62 Stat. 6
  • April 3, 1948: Foreign Assistance Act (Marshall Plan), Pub.L. 80–472, Sess. 2, ch. 169, 62 Stat. 137
  • April 3, 1948: Greek-Turkish Assistance Act of 1948 (Marshall Plan), Sess. 2, ch. 169, Pub.L. 80–472, Title III, 62 Stat. 157
  • May 26, 1948: Civil Air Patrol Act, Sess. 2, ch. 349, Pub.L. 80–557, 62 Stat. 274
  • June 12, 1948: Women's Armed Services Integration Act, Sess. 2, ch. 449, Pub.L. 80–625, 62 Stat. 356
  • June 17, 1948: Reed-Bulwinkle Act, Sess. 2, ch. 491, Pub.L. 80–662, 62 Stat. 472
  • June 25, 1948: Title 3 of the United States Code, Sess. 2, ch. 644, Pub.L. 80–771, 62 Stat. 672
  • June 28, 1948: Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act of 1948, Pub.L. 80–806, 62 Stat. 1070
  • June 30, 1948: Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Sess. 2, ch. 758, Pub.L. 80–845, 62 Stat. 1155
  • July 3, 1948: War Claims Act of 1948, Sess. 2, ch. 826, Pub.L. 80–896, 62 Stat. 1240
  • July 3, 1948: Agricultural Act of 1948, Sess. 2, ch. 827, Pub.L. 80–897, 62 Stat. 1247
  • Constitutional provisions

  • March 21, 1947: Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution proposed
  • House of Representatives

    From the beginning to the end of this Congress, there was no net change in party power. The Democrats lost one seat, which remained vacant until the next Congress.

    Leadership

    [ Section contents: Senate: Majority (R), Minority (D) • House: Majority (R), Minority (D) ]

    Senate

  • President: Vacant
  • President pro tempore: Arthur Vandenberg (R)
  • Majority (Republican) leadership

  • Majority leader: Wallace White
  • Majority whip: Kenneth Wherry
  • Conference Chairman: Eugene Millikin
  • Republican Conference Secretary: Milton Young
  • Policy Committee Chairman: Robert A. Taft
  • Minority (Democratic) leadership

  • Minority leader: Alben Barkley
  • Minority whip: Scott Lucas
  • Caucus Secretary: Brien McMahon
  • House of Representatives

  • Speaker: Joseph Martin (R)
  • Majority (Republican) leadership

  • Majority Leader: Charles Halleck
  • Republican Whip: Leslie Arends
  • Republican Conference Chairman: Roy O. Woodruff
  • Minority (Democratic) leadership

  • Minority Leader: Sam Rayburn
  • Democratic Whip: John McCormack
  • Democratic Caucus Chairman: Aime Forand
  • Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Michael J. Kirwan
  • Caucuses

  • House Democratic Caucus
  • Senate

    Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election.

    House of Representatives

    The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide at-large, are preceded by an "At-Large," and the names of those elected from districts, whether plural or single member, are preceded by their district numbers.

    The congressional district numbers are linked to articles describing the district itself. Since the boundaries of the districts have changed often and substantially, the linked article may only describe the district as it exists today, and not as it was at the time of this Congress.

    Changes in membership

    The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress

    Senate

    There were 3 deaths, 2 resignations, and one lost mid-term election.

    House of Representatives

    There were 9 deaths and 7 resignations.

    Committees

    Lists of committees and their party leaders.

    Senate

  • Agriculture and Forestry
  • Appropriations
  • Banking and Currency
  • District of Columbia
  • Expenditures in Executive Departments
  • Finance
  • Foreign Relations
  • Interior and Insular Affairs
  • Interstate Commerce
  • Investigate the National Defense Program (Special)
  • Judiciary
  • Labor and Public Welfare
  • Petroleum Resources (Special)
  • Post Office and Civil Service
  • Public Lands
  • Public Works
  • Remodeling the Senate Chamber (Special)
  • Small Business Enterprises (Special)
  • Whole
  • House of Representatives

  • Agriculture
  • Appropriations
  • Banking and Currency
  • District of Columbia
  • Education and Labor
  • Expenditures in the Executive Departments
  • Foreign Affairs
  • House Administration
  • Merchant Marine and Fisheries
  • Post Office and Civil Service
  • Public Lands
  • Public Works
  • Rules
  • Small Business (Select)
  • Standards of Official Conduct
  • Un-American Activities
  • Veterans' Affairs
  • Ways and Means
  • Whole
  • Joint committees

  • Atomic Energy
  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Economic
  • Disposition of Executive Papers
  • Foreign Economic Cooperation
  • Housing
  • Labor Management Relations
  • Legislative Budget
  • The Library
  • To Study Pacific Islands
  • Printing
  • Reduction of Nonessential Federal Expenditures
  • Selective Service Deferments
  • Taxation
  • Legislative branch agency directors

  • Architect of the Capitol: David Lynn
  • Attending Physician of the United States Congress: George Calver
  • Comptroller General of the United States: Lindsay C. Warren
  • Librarian of Congress: Luther H. Evans
  • Public Printer of the United States: Augustus E. Giegengack (until 1948), John J. Deviny (starting 1948)
  • Senate

  • Chaplain: Peter Marshall
  • Parliamentarian: Charles Watkins
  • Secretary: Carl A. Loeffler
  • Sergeant at Arms: Edward F. McGinnis
  • House of Representatives

  • Chaplain: James Shera Montgomery (Methodist)
  • Clerk: John Andrews
  • Doorkeeper: M. L. Meletio
  • Parliamentarian: Lewis Deschler
  • Postmaster: Frank W. Collier
  • Sergeant at Arms: William F. Russell
  • References

    80th United States Congress Wikipedia


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